Advertisement

Faunal Assemblages of Seagrass Ecosystems

  • Paul H. York
  • Glenn A. Hyndes
  • Melanie J. Bishop
  • Richard S. K. Barnes
Chapter

Abstract

Seagrass habitats support diverse animal assemblages and while there has been considerable progress in the study of these fauna over the last few decades, large knowledge gaps remain. There are biases in our knowledge of taxonomic and functional information that favour the temperate regions over the tropics, some seagrass genera over others, shallow habitats compared to deeper meadows and larger animals over smaller ones, with many invertebrate communities poorly described. In many areas of Australia, invertebrate identification to low taxonomic resolution is difficult due to a lack of resources, but new approaches, such as genetic barcoding, may one day surpass traditional methods of classification and overcome this issue. Many studies have demonstrated greater biodiversity of fauna in seagrass compared to adjacent bare habitats with explanations for this ranging from habitat and seascape processes to food availability and trophic interactions. Within seagrass ecosystems, meadows can be highly heterogeneous, and habitat factors such as structural complexity, patch size, edges, gaps and corridors influence associated faunal communities. Broader seascape processes that occur across multiple connected habitats, including seagrass meadows, bare sediments, mangroves, saltmarshes and coral and rocky reefs, influence faunal productivity and/or diversity through the movement of organisms for recruitment and migration, and the transport of detritus and nutrients. The study of seagrass food webs has highlighted the importance of bottom-up processes in shaping the faunal assemblages through assessments of the role of invertebrate prey in influencing the productivity of consumer species and manipulative experiments that show prey resources affecting spatial patterns of predators. In addition, top-down consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators such as their modification of prey behaviour also affect the structure of faunal communities. A large number of natural and anthropogenic perturbations to seagrass meadows influence their resident animals. These disturbances can modify seagrass-associated fauna in several ways; directly where seagrass fauna are more sensitive to perturbation than their seagrass habitat, indirectly through habitat modification, and additionally through interventions that reduce connectivity between habitats that fauna use for part of their life cycle. Animals can also play a significant role in structuring seagrass meadows through processes such as herbivory and bioturbation that can have both positive and negative effects on seagrass habitat.

References

  1. Ackerman JD, Okubo A (1993) Reduced mixing in a marine macrophyte canopy. Funct Ecol 7(3):305–309.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2390209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams AJ, Ebersole JP (2009) Mechanisms affecting recruitment patterns of fish and decapods in tropical coastal ecosystems. In: Ecological connectivity among tropical coastal ecosystems, pp 185–228.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2406-0_6
  3. Alcoverro T, Mariani S (2004) Patterns of fish and sea urchin grazing on tropical Indo-Pacific seagrass beds. Ecography 27(3):361–365.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0906-7590.2004.03736.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aragones LV, Marsh DH (2000) Impact of Dugong grazing and turtle cropping on tropical seagrass communities. Pac Conserv Biol 5:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asmus H, Asmus R (2000) Material exchange and food web of seagrass beds in the Sylt-Romo Bight: how significant are community changes at the ecosystem level? Helgol Mar Res 54(2–3):137–150.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s101520050012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Attrill MJ, Strong JA, Rowden AA (2000) Are macroinvertebrate communities influenced by seagrass structural complexity? Ecography 23(1):114–121.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2000.tb00266.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aylagas E, Borja Á, Rodríguez-Ezpeleta N (2014) Environmental status assessment Using DNA metabarcoding: towards a genetics based marine biotic index (gAMBI). PLoS ONE 9(3):e90529.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090529CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes RSK (2014) Is spatial uniformity of soft-sediment biodiversity widespread and if so, over what scales? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 504:147–158.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes RSK, Barnes MKS (2012) Shore height and differentials between macrobenthic assemblages in vegetated and unvegetated areas of an intertidal sandflat. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 106:112–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.05.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnes RSK, Barnes MKS (2014a) Biodiversity differentials between the numerically-dominant macrobenthos of seagrass and adjacent unvegetated sediment in the absence of sandflat bioturbation. Mar Environ Res 99:34–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2014.05.013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnes RSK, Barnes MKS (2014b) Spatial uniformity of biodiversity is inevitable if the available species are distributed independently of each other. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 516:263–266.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps11067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barnes RSK, Ellwood MDF (2011) The significance of shore height in intertidal macrobenthic seagrass ecology and conservation. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 21(7):614–624.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnes RSK, Hamylton S (2013) Abrupt transitions between macrobenthic faunal assemblages across seagrass bed margins. Estuar Coast Shelf S 131:213–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2013.08.007
  14. Barnes RSK, Hamylton S (2015) Uniform functional structure across spatial scales in an intertidal benthic assemblage. Mar Environ Res 106:82–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2015.03.006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnes RSK, Hendy IW (2015a) Functional uniformity underlies the common spatial structure of macrofaunal assemblages in intertidal seagrass beds. Biol J Lin Soc 115(1):114–126.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnes RSK, Hendy IW (2015b) Seagrass-associated macrobenthic functional diversity and functional structure along an estuarine gradient. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 164:233–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2015.07.050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beck MW, Heck KL, Able KW, Childers DL, Eggleston DB, Gillanders BM, Halpern B, Hays CG, Hoshino K, Minello TJ, Orth RJ, Sheridan PF, Weinstein MR (2001) The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. Bioscience 51(8):633–641.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0633:ticamo]2.0.co;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Belicka LL, Burkholder D, Fourqurean JW, Heithaus MR, MacKo SA, Jaff́ R (2012) Stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers of seagrass, epiphytic, and algal organic matter to consumers in a pristine seagrass ecosystem. Mar Freshw Res 63(11):1085–1097.  https://doi.org/10.1071/MF12027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bell JD, Westoby M (1986) Abundance of macrofauna in dense seagrass is due to habitat preference, not predation. Oecologia 68(2):205–209.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00384788CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bell SS, Walters K, Kern JC (1984) Meiofauna from seagrass habitats: a review and prospectus for future research. Estuaries 7(4A):331–338.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1351617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bell SS, Brooks RA, Robbins BD, Fonseca MS, Hall MO (2001) Faunal response to fragmentation in seagrass habitats: implications for seagrass conservation. Biol Conserv 100(1):115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bishop MJ (2005) Compensatory effects of boat wake and dredge spoil disposal on assemblages of macroinvertebrates. Estuaries 28(4):510–518.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02696062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bishop MJ (2008) Displacement of epifauna from seagrass blades by boat wake. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 354(1):111–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2007.10.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bishop MJ, Kelaher BP (2007) Impacts of detrital enrichment on estuarine assemblages: disentangling effects of frequency and intensity of disturbance. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 341:25–36.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps341025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bishop MJ, Kelaher BP, Alquezar R, York PH, Ralph PJ, Skilbeck CG (2007) Trophic cul-de-sac, Pyrazus ebeninus, limits trophic transfer through an estuarine detritus-based food web. Oikos 116(3):427–438.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.15557.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bloomfield AL, Gillanders BM (2005) Fish and invertebrate assemblages in seagrass, mangrove, saltmarsh, and nonvegetated habitats. Estuaries 28(1):63–77.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02732754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Borowitzka MA, Lethbridge RC, Charlton L (1990) Species richness, spatial distribution and colonization pattern of algal and invertebrate epiphytes on the seagrass Amphibolis griffithi. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 64(3):281–291.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps064281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Boström C, Jackson EL, Simenstad CA (2006) Seagrass landscapes and their effects on associated fauna: a review. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 68(3–4):383–403.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2006.01.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bouillon S, Connolly RM (2009) Carbon exchange among tropical coastal ecosystems. In: Ecological connectivity among tropical coastal ecosystems, pp 45–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2406-0_3
  30. Bremner J, Rogers SI, Frid CLJ (2003) Assessing functional diversity in marine benthic ecosystems: a comparison of approaches. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 254:11–25.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps254011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bucklin A, Steinke D, Blanco-Bercial L (2011) DNA barcoding of marine metazoa. Annu Rev Mar Sci 3:471–508.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-120308-080950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bulthuis DA, Axelrad DM, Mickelson MJ (1992) Growth of the seagrass Heterozostera tasmanica limited by nitrogen in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 89(2–3):269–275.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps089269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Burkholder JM, Glasgow HB, Cooke JE (1994) Comparative effects of water-column nitrate enrichment on eelgrass Zostera marina, shoalgrass Halodule wrightii, and widgeongrass Ruppia maritima. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 105(1–2):121–138.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps105121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Burkholder JM, Mason KM, Glasgow HB (1992) Water-column nitrate enrichment promotes decline of eelgrass Zostera marina: evidence from seasonal mesocosm experiments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 81(2):163–178.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps081163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Burnell OW, Connell SD, Irving AD, Russell BD (2013) Asymmetric patterns of recovery in two habitat forming seagrass species following simulated overgrazing by urchins. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 448:114–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2013.07.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cambridge ML, Chiffings AW, Brittan C, Moore L, McComb AJ (1986) The loss of seagrass in cockburn sound, Western Australia. II. Possible causes of seagrass decline. Aquat Bot 24(3):269–285.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(86)90062-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Casares FA, Creed JC (2008) Do small seagrasses enhance density, richness, and diversity of macrofauna? J Coastal Res 24(3):790–797.  https://doi.org/10.2112/05-0565.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cebrian J (2002) Variability and control of carbon consumption, export, and accumulation in marine communities. Limnol Oceanogr 47(1):11–22.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2002.47.1.0011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chelsky A, Burfeind DD, Loh WKW, Tibbetts IR (2011) Identification of seagrasses in the gut of a marine herbivorous fish using DNA barcoding and visual inspection techniques. J Fish Biol 79(1):112–121.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.02999.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Choney GE, McMahon K, Lavery PS, Collier N (2014) Swan grazing on seagrass: abundance but not grazing pressure varies over an annual cycle in a temperate estuary. Mar Freshw Res 65(8):738–749.  https://doi.org/10.1071/mf13126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Christianen MJA, Herman PMJ, Bouma TJ, Lamers LPM, van Katwijk MM, van der Heide T, Mumby PJ, Silliman BR, Engelhard SL, de Kerk MV, Kiswara W, van de Koppel J (2014) Habitat collapse due to overgrazing threatens turtle conservation in marine protected areas. Proc Roy Soc B Biol Sci 281(1777):7.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cobb J (1981) Behaviour of the Western Australian spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus George, in the field and laboratory. Mar Freshw Res 32(3):399–409.  https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9810399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Coles R, Lee Long W, Watson R, Derbyshire K (1993) Distribution of seagrasses, and their fish and penaeid prawn communities, in Cairns harbour, a tropical estuary, Northern Queensland, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 44(1):193–210.  https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9930193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Collett LC, Hutchings PA, Gibbs PJ, Collins AJ (1984) A comparative study of the macro-benthic fauna of Posidonia australis seagrass meadows in New South Wales. Aquat Bot 18(1–2):111–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(84)90083-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Colombini I, Chelazzi L, Gibson R, Atkinson R (2003) Influence of marine allochthonous input on sandy beach communities. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 41:115–159Google Scholar
  46. Connell JH (1983) On the prevalence and relative importance of interspecific competition: evidence from field experiments. Am Nat 122(5):661–696.  https://doi.org/10.1086/284165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Connolly RM (1997) Differences in composition of small, motile invertebrate assemblages from seagrass and unvegetated habitats in a southern Australian estuary. Hydrobiologia 346:137–148.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1002970100662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Connolly RM, Gorman D, Guest MA (2005a) Movement of carbon among estuarine habitats and its assimilation by invertebrates. Oecologia 144(4):684–691.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0167-4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Connolly RM, Hindell JS, Gorman D (2005b) Seagrass and epiphytic algae support nutrition of a fisheries species, Sillago schomburgkii, in adjacent intertidal habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 286:69–79.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps286069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Connolly RM, Hindell JS (2006) Review of nekton patterns and ecological processes in seagrass landscapes. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 68(3–4):433–444.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2006.01.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Coull BC (1999) Role of meiofauna in estuarine soft-bottom habitats. Aust J Ecol 24(4):327–343.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-9993.1999.00979.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cowart DA, Pinheiro M, Mouchel O, Maguer M, Grall J, Miné J, Arnaud-Haond S (2015) Metabarcoding is powerful yet still blind: a comparative analysis of morphological and molecular surveys of seagrass communities. PLoS ONE 10(2):e0117562.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117562CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Crawley KR, Hyndes GA (2007) The role of different types of detached macrophytes in the food and habitat choice of a surf-zone inhabiting amphipod. Mar Biol 151(4):1433–1443.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0581-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Crawley KR, Hyndes GA, Ayvazian SG (2006) Influence of different volumes and types of detached macrophytes on fish community structure in surf zones of sandy beaches. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 307:233–246.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps307233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Crawley KR, Hyndes GA, Vanderklift MA (2007) Variation among diets in discrimination of delta(13) C and delta(15) N in the amphipod Allorchestes compressa. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 349(2):370–377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2007.05.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Crawley KR, Hyndes GA, Vanderklift MA, Revill AT, Nichols PD (2009) Allochthonous brown algae are the primary food source for consumers in a temperate, coastal environment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 376:33–44.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cummins SP, Roberts DE, Zimmerman KD (2004) Effects of the green macroalga Enteromorpha intestinalis on macrobenthic and seagrass assemblages in a shallow coastal estuary. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 266:77–87.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps266077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dayton PK (1971) Competition, disturbance, and community organization: provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecol Monogr 41(4):351–389.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1948498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. DeWitt TH (2009) The effects of bioturbation and bioirrigation on seagrasses. Seagrasses and protective criteria: a review and assessment of research status. US EPAGoogle Scholar
  60. Doropoulos C, Hyndes GA, Lavery PS, Tuya F (2009) Dietary preferences of two seagrass inhabiting gastropods: allochthonous vs autochthonous resources. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 83(1):13–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.03.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dos Santos VM, Matheson FE, Pilditch CA, Elger A (2012) Is black swan grazing a threat to seagrass? Indications from an observational study in New Zealand. Aquat Bot 100:41–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2012.03.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dos Santos VM, Matheson FE, Pilditch CA, Elger A (2013) Seagrass resilience to waterfowl grazing in a temperate estuary: a multi-site experimental study. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 446:194–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2013.05.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Douglass JG, Duffy JE, Spivak AC, Richardson JP (2007) Nutrient versus consumer control of community structure in a Chesapeake Bay eelgrass habitat. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 348:71–83.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Duffy JE, Macdonald KS, Rhode JM, Parker JD (2001) Grazer diversity, functional redundancy, and productivity in seagrass beds: an experimental test. Ecology 82(9):2417–2434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ebrahim A, Olds AD, Maxwell PS, Pitt KA, Burfeind DD, Connolly RM (2014) Herbivory in a subtropical seagrass ecosystem: separating the functional role of different grazers. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 511:83–91.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Edgar GJ (1990a) The influence of plant structure on the species richness, biomass and secondary production of macrofaunal assemblages assosciated with Western Australian seagrass beds. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 137(3):215–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(90)90186-gCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Edgar GJ (1990b) Population regulation. Population dynamics and competition amongst mobile epifauna assosciated with seagrass. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 144(2–3):205–234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(90)90029-cCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Edgar GJ (1990c) Predator prey interactions in seagrass beds I. The influence of macrofaunal abundance and size structure on the diet and growth of the western rock lobster Panuliris cygnus George. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 139(1–2):1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(90)90034-aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Edgar GJ (1990d) Predator prey interactions in seagrass beds II. Distribution and diet of the blue manna crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus at Cliff Head Western Australia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 139(1–2):23–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(90)90035-bCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Edgar GJ (1990e) Predator prey interactions in seagrass beds. III. Impacts of the western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus George on epifaunal gastropod populations. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 139(1–2):33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Edgar GJ (1992) Patterns of colonization of mobile epifauna in a Western Australian seagrass bed. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 157(2):225–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(92)90164-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Edgar GJ, Barrett NS (2002) Benthic macrofauna in Tasmanian estuaries: scales of distribution and relationships with environmental variables. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 270(1):1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-0981(02)00014-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Edgar GJ, Robertson AI (1992) The influence of seagrass structure on the distribution and abundance of mobile epifauna: pattern and process in a Western Australian Amphibolis bed. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 160(1):13–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(92)90107-lCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Edgar GJ, Shaw C (1995a) The production and trophic ecology of shallow-water fish assemblages in southern Australia II. Diets of fishes and trophic relationships between fishes and benthos at Western Port, Victoria. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 194(1):83–106. 10.1016/0022-0981(95)00084-4
  75. Edgar GJ, Shaw C (1995b) The production and trophic ecology of shallow-water fish assemblages in southern Australia. I. Species richness, size-structure and production of fishes in Western Port, Victoria. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 194(1):53–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(95)00083-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Edgar GJ, Shaw C, Watson GF, Hammond LS (1994) Comparisons of species richness, size structure and production of benthos in vegetated and unvegetated habitat in Western Port, Victoria. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 176(2):201–226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(94)90185-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Eklof JS, McMahon K, Lavery PS (2009) Effects of multiple disturbances in seagrass meadows: shading decreases resilience to grazing. Mar Freshw Res 60(12):1317–1327.  https://doi.org/10.1071/mf09008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Enriquez S, Pantoja-Reyes NI (2005) Form-function analysis of the effect of canopy morphology on leaf self-shading in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Oecologia 145(2):235–243.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0111-7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Ferrell DJ, McNeill SE, Worthington DG, Bell JD (1993) Temporal and spatial variation in the abundance of fish associated with the seagrass Posidonia australis in south-eastern australia. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 44(6):881–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fisher R, Sheaves MJ (2003) Community structure and spatial variability of marine nematodes in tropical Australian pioneer seagrass meadows. Hydrobiologia 495(1–3):143–158.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1025406624390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Fonseca MS, Bell SS (1998) Influence of physical setting on seagrass landscapes near Beaufort, North Carolina, USA. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 171:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Fonseca G, Hutchings P, Gallucci F (2011) Meiobenthic communities of seagrass beds (Zostera capricorni) and unvegetated sediments along the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 91(1):69–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2010.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Fonseca MS, Cahalan JA (1992) A preliminary evaluation of wave attenuation by four species of seagrass. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 35(6):565–576.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7714(05)80039-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Fox AD (1996) Zostera exploitation by Brent geese and wigeon on the Exe estuary, southern England. Bird Study 43:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fry B, Mumford PL, Robblee MB (1999) Stable isotope studies of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum Burkenroad) migrations on the southwestern Florida shelf. Bull Mar Sci 65(2):419–430Google Scholar
  86. Garbary D, Miller A, Williams J, Seymour N (2014) Drastic decline of an extensive eelgrass bed in Nova Scotia due to the activity of the invasive green crab (Carcinus maenas). Mar Biol 161(1):3–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-013-2323-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Garside C, Glasby T, Coleman M, Kelaher B, Bishop M (2014) The frequency of connection of coastal water bodies to the ocean predicts Carcinus maenas invasion. Limnol Oceanogr 59(4):1288–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gartner A, Lavery PS, McMahon K, Brearley A, Barwick H (2010) Light reductions drive macroinvertebrate changes in Amphibolis griffithii seagrass habitatGoogle Scholar
  89. Gartner A, Tuya F, Lavery PS, McMahon K (2013) Habitat preferences of macroinvertebrate fauna among seagrasses with varying structural forms. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 439:143–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2012.11.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ghisalberti M, Nepf HM (2002) Mixing layers and coherent structures in vegetated aquatic flows. J Geophys Res Oceans 107(C2).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001jc000871
  91. Gibbs P, Maguire G, Collett L (2010) The macrobenthic fauna of Halophila seagrass meadows in New South Wales. Wetlands 4(1):23–31Google Scholar
  92. Gray CA, McElligott DJ, Chick RC (1996) Intra- and inter-estuary differences in assemblages of fishes associated with shallow seagrass and bare sand. Mar Freshw Res 47(5):723–735.  https://doi.org/10.1071/mf9960723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gribben PE, Wright JT (2014) Habitat-former effects on prey behaviour increase predation and non-predation mortality. J Anim Ecol 83(2):388–396.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Grizzle RE, Short FT, Newell CR, Hoven H, Kindblom L (1996) Hydrodynamically induced synchronous waving of seagrasses: ‘Monami’ and its possible effects on larval mussel settlement. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 206(1–2):165–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-0981(96)02616-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Grober-Dunsmore R, Frazer TK, Lindberg WJ, Beets J (2007) Reef fish and habitat relationships in a Caribbean seascape: the importance of reef context. Coral Reefs 26(1):201–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-006-0180-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Guest MA, Connolly RM, Loneragan NR (2003) Seine nets and beam trawls compared by day and night for sampling fish and crustaceans in shallow seagrass habitat. Fish Res 64(2–3):185–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-7836(03)00109-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hanson CE, Hyndes GA, Wang SF (2010) Differentiation of benthic marine primary producers using stable isotopes and fatty acids: implications to food web studies. Aquat Bot 93(2):114–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2010.04.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Haywood MDE, Vance DJ, Loneragan NR (1995) Seagrass and algal beds as nursery habitats for tiger prawns (Penaeus semisulcatus and P. esculentus) in a tropical Australian estuary. Mar Biol 122(2):213–223.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00348934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Heck KL, Carruthers TJB, Duarte CM, Hughes AR, Kendrick G, Orth RJ, Williams SW (2008) Trophic transfers from seagrass meadows subsidize diverse marine and terrestrial consumers. Ecosystems 11:1198–1210Google Scholar
  100. Heck KL Jr., Valentine JF (2006) Plant–herbivore interactions in seagrass meadows. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 330(1):420–436.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2005.12.044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Heck KL, Thoman TA (1981) Experiments on predator-prey interactions in vegetated aquatic habitats. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 53(2–3):125–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(81)90014-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Heck KL, Wetstone GS (1977) Habitat complexity and invertebrate species richness and abundance in tropical seagrass meadows. J Biogeogr 4(2):135–142.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3038158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Heck KL, Hays G, Orth RJ (2003) Critical evaluation of the nursery role hypothesis for seagrass meadows. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 253:123–136.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps253123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Heithaus MR (2005) Habitat use and group size of pied cormorants (Phalacrocorax varius) in a seagrass ecosystem: possible effects of food abundance and predation risk. Mar Biol 147(1):27–35.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-004-1534-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Heithaus MR, Dill LM, Marshall GJ, Buhleier B (2002) Habitat use and foraging behavior of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cavier) in a seagrass ecosystem. Mar Biol 140(2):237–248.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-001-0711-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Heithaus MR, Hamilton IM, Wirsing AJ, Dill LM (2006) Validation of a randomization procedure to assess animal habitat preferences: microhabitat use of tiger sharks in a seagrass ecosystem. J Anim Ecol 75(3):666–676.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2006.01087.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, Keough MJ (2000a) Evaluating the impact of predation by fish on the assemblage structure of fishes associated with seagrass (Heterozostera tasmanica) (Martens ex Ascherson) den Hartog, and unvegetated sand habitats. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 255(2):153–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-0981(00)00289-6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, Keough MJ (2000b) Variability in abundances of fishes associated with seagrass habitats in relation to diets of predatory fishes. Mar Biol 136(4):725–737.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270050732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, Keough MJ (2001) Spatial and temporal variability in the effects of fish predation on macrofauna in relation to habitat complexity and cage effects. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 224:231–250.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps224231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hollingsworth A, Connolly RM (2006) Feeding by fish visiting inundated subtropical saltmarsh. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 336(1):88–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.04.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hughes AR, Bando KJ, Rodriguez LF, Williams SL (2004) Relative effects of grazers and nutrients on seagrasses: a meta-analysis approach. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 282:87–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hutchings P (1982) The fauna of Australian seagrass beds. Proc Linn Soc NSW 106:181–200Google Scholar
  113. Hyndes GA, Francour PG, Jenkins GP, Heck KL (2018) The roles of seagrasses in structuring associated fish assemblages and fisheries. In: Larkum AWD, Kendrick GA, Ralph PJ (eds) Seagrasses of Australia. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  114. Hyndes GA, Lavery PS (2005) Does transported seagrass provide an important trophic link in unvegetated, nearshore areas? Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 63(4):633–643.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2005.01.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hyndes GA, Kendrick AJ, MacArthur LD, Stewart E (2003) Differences in the species- and size-composition of fish assemblages in three distinct seagrass habitats with differing plant and meadow structure. Mar Biol 142(6):1195–1206.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-003-1010-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hyndes GA, Lavery PS, Doropoulos C (2012) Dual processes for cross-boundary subsidies: incorporation of nutrients from reef-derived kelp into a seagrass ecosystem. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 445:97–107.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hyndes GA, Nagelkerken I, McLeod RJ, Connolly RM, Lavery PS, Vanderklift MA (2014) Mechanisms and ecological role of carbon transfer within coastal seascapes. Biol Rev 89(1):232–254.  https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12055CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Ince R, Hyndes GA, Lavery PS, Vanderklift MA (2007) Marine macrophytes directly enhance abundances of sandy beach fauna through provision of food and habitat. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 74(1–2):77–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.03.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Inglis GJ (2000) Disturbance-related heterogeneity in the seed banks of a marine angiosperm. J Ecol 88(1):88–99.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2000.00433.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jackson AC, Murphy RJ, Underwood AJ (2009) Patiriella exigua: grazing by a starfish in an overgrazed intertidal system. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 376:153–163.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jackson EL, Rowden AA, Attrill MJ, Bossey SJ, Jones MB (2001) The importance of seagrass beds as a habitat for fishery species. Oceanogr Mar Biol 39:269–304Google Scholar
  122. Jaschinski S, Sommer U (2008) Top-down and bottom-up control in an eelgrass-epiphyte system. Oikos 117(5):754–762.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.16455.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jelbart JE, Ross PM, Connolly RM (2006) Edge effects and patch size in seagrass landscapes: an experimental test using fish. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 319:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jelbart JE, Ross PM, Connolly RM (2007a) Fish assemblages in seagrass beds are influenced by the proximity of mangrove forests. Mar Biol 150(5):993–1002.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0419-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jelbart JE, Ross PM, Connolly RM (2007b) Patterns of small fish distributions in seagrass beds in a temperate Australian estuary. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 87(5):1297–1307.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025315407053283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Jenkins GP, Wheatley MJ (1998) The influence of habitat structure on nearshore fish assemblages in a southern Australian embayment: comparison of shallow seagrass, reef-algal and unvegetated sand habitats, with emphasis on their importance to recruitment. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 221(2):147–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-0981(97)00121-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jenkins GP, May HMA, Wheatley MJ, Holloway MG (1997) Comparison of fish assemblages associated with seagrass and adjacent unvegetated habitats of Port Phillip Bay and Corner Inlet, Victoria, Australia, with emphasis on commercial species. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 44(5):569–588.  https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.1996.0131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Jenkins GP, Walker-Smith GK, Hamer PA (2002) Elements of habitat complexity that influence harpacticoid copepods associated with seagrass beds in a temperate bay. Oecologia 131(4):598–605.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-0911-yCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Jernakoff P (1987) Foraging patterns of juvenile western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus George. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 113(2):125–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(87)90160-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Jernakoff P, Nielsen J (1998) Plant–animal associations in two species of seagrasses in Western Australia. Aquat Bot 60(4):359–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Jernakoff P, Phillips BF, Fitzpatrick JJ (1993) The diet of post peurulus western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus George at Seven Mile Beach, Western Australia. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 44(4):649–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Josselyn MN, Cailliet GM, Niesen TM, Cowen R, Hurley AC, Connor J, Hawes S (1983) Composition, export and faunal utilization of drift vegetation in the Salt River submarine canyon. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 17(4):447–465.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-7714(83)90129-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kelaher BP, Van Den Broek J, York PH, Bishop MJ, Booth DJ (2013) Positive responses of a seagrass ecosystem to experimental nutrient enrichment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 487:15–25.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kelkar N, Arthur R, Marbà N, Alcoverro T (2013) Greener pastures? High-density feeding aggregations of green turtles precipitate species shifts in seagrass meadows. J Ecol 101(5):1158–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kendrick AJ, Hyndes GA (2003) Patterns in the abundance and size-distribution of syngnathid fishes among habitats in a seagrass-dominated marine environment. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 57(4):631–640.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7714(02)00402-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kennedy H, Beggins J, Duarte CM, Fourqurean JW, Holmer M, Marba N, Middelburg JJ (2010) Seagrass sediments as a global carbon sink: isotopic constraints. Global Biogeochem Cycles 24.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010gb003848
  137. Kenyon RA, Loneragan NR, Hughes JM (1995) Habitat type and light affect sheltering behavior of juvenile tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus Haswell) and success rates of their fish predators. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 192(1):87–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(95)00064-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kirkman H, Kendrick GA (1997) Ecological significance and commercial harvesting of drifting and beach-cast macro-algae and seagrasses in Australia: a review. J Appl Phycol 9(4):311–326.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1007965506873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Klumpp DW, Kwak SN (2005) Composition and abundance of benthic macrofauna of a tropical sea-grass bed in north Queensland, Australia. Pac Sci 59(4):541–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Klumpp DW, Nichols PD (1983) A study of food-chains in seagrass communities. II. Food of the rock flathead, Platycephalus laevigatus Cuvier, a major predator in a Posidonia australis seagrass bed. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 34(5):745–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Kneer D, Asmus H, Jompa J (2013) Do burrowing callianassid shrimp control the lower boundary of tropical seagrass beds? J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 446:262–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2013.05.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kneib RT (1997) The role of tidal marshes in the ecology of estuarine nekton. Oceanogr Mar Biol 35:163–220Google Scholar
  143. Koch EW, Gust G (1999) Water flow in tide- and wave-dominated beds of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 184:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Koop K, Griffiths CL (1982) The relative significance of bacteria, meiofauna and macrofauna on an exposed sandy beach. Mar Biol 66(3):295–300.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00397035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Krumme U (2009) Diel and tidal movements by fish and decapods linking tropical coastal ecosystems. In: Nagelkerken I (ed) Ecological connectivity among tropical coastal ecosystems. Springer, London UK, pp 271–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kuiper-Linley M, Johnson CR, Lanyon JM (2007) Effects of simulated green turtle regrazing on seagrass abundance, growth and nutritional status in Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 58(5):492–503.  https://doi.org/10.1071/mf06241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Kwak SN, Klumpp DW (2004) Temporal variation in species composition and abundance of fish and decapods of a tropical seagrass bed in Cockle Bay, North Queensland, Australia. Aquat Bot 78(2):119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Langdon MW, Paling EI, van Keulen M (2011) The development of urchin barrens in seagrass meadows at Luscombe Bay, Western Australia from 1985 to 2004. Pac Conserv Biol 17(1–2):48–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lavery PS, McMahon K, Weyers J, Boyce MC, Oldham CE (2013) Release of dissolved organic carbon from seagrass wrack and its implications for trophic connectivity. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 494:121–133.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Lebreton B, Richard P, Galois R, Radenac G, Brahmia A, Colli G, Grouazel M, Andre C, Guillou G, Blanchard GF (2012) Food sources used by sediment meiofauna in an intertidal Zostera noltii seagrass bed: a seasonal stable isotope study. Mar Biol 159(7):1537–1550.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-012-1940-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Lee SY, Fong CW, Wu RSS (2001) The effects of seagrass (Zostera japonica) canopy structure on associated fauna: a study using artificial seagrass units and sampling of natural beds. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 259(1):23–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-0981(01)00221-0CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Lemmens JWTJ, Clapin G, Lavery P, Cary J (1996) Filtering capacity of seagrass meadows and other habitats of Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 143(1–3):187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Lenanton RCJ, Robertson AI, Hansen JA (1982) Nearshore accumulations of detached macrophytes as nursery areas for fish. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 9(1):51–57.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps009051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Leopardas V, Uy W, Nakaoka M (2014) Benthic macrofaunal assemblages in multispecific seagrass meadows of the southern Philippines: variation among vegetation dominated by different seagrass species. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 457:71–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2014.04.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Loneragan NR, Bunn SE, Kellaway DM (1997) Are mangroves and seagrasses sources of organic carbon for penaeid prawns in a tropical Australian estuary? A multiple stable-isotope study. Mar Biol 130(2):289–300.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270050248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Loneragan N, Kenyon R, Staples D, Poiner I, Conacher C (1998) The influence of seagrass type on the distribution and abundance of postlarval and juvenile tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus and P. semisulcatus) in the western Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 228(2):175–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Lugendo BR, Nagelkerken I, van der Velde G, Mgaya YD (2006) The importance of mangroves, mud and sand flats, and seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile fishes in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar: gut content and stable isotope analyses. J Fish Biol 69(6):1639–1661.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2006.01231.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. MacArthur LD, Hyndes GA (2001) Differential use of seagrass assemblages by a suite of odacid species. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 52(1):79–90.  https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2000.0728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. MacArthur LD, Hyndes GA (2007) Varying foraging strategies of Labridae in seagrass habitats: herbivory in temperate seagrass meadows? J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 340(2):247–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.09.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. MacArthur LD, Hyndes GA, Babcock RC, Vanderklift MA (2008) Nocturnally active western rock lobsters Panulirus cygnus forage close to shallow coastal reefs. Aquat Biol 4(2):201–210.  https://doi.org/10.3354/ab00107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. MacArthur LD, Phillips DL, Hyndes GA, Hanson CE, Vanderklift MA (2011) Habitat surrounding patch reefs influences the diet and nutrition of the western rock lobster. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 436:191–205.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Macreadie PI, Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, Connolly RM, Keough MJ (2009) Fish responses to experimental fragmentation of seagrass habitat. Conserv Biol 23(3):644–652.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01130.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Macreadie PI, Connolly RM, Jenkins GP, Hindell JS, Keough MJ (2010a) Edge patterns in aquatic invertebrates explained by predictive models. Mar Freshw Res 61(2):214–218.  https://doi.org/10.1071/MF09072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Macreadie PI, Connolly RM, Keough MJ, Jenkins GP, Hindell JS (2010b) Short-term differences in animal assemblages in patches formed by loss and growth of habitat. Austral Ecol 35(5):515–521.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.02060.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Macreadie PI, Hindell JS, Keough MJ, Jenkins GP, Connolly RM (2010c) Resource distribution influences positive edge effects in a seagrass fish. Ecology 91(7):2013–2021.  https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1890.1CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Markmann M, Tautz D (2005) Reverse taxonomy: an approach towards determining the diversity of meiobenthic organisms based on ribosomal RNA signature sequences. Philos Trans Roy Soc B Biol Sci 360(1462):1917–1924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Marnane MJ, Bellwood DR (2002) Diet and nocturnal foraging in cardinalfishes (Apogonidae) at One Tree Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 231:261–268.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps231261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Marsh H (2018) Dugongs: seagrass community specialists. In: Larkum AWD, Kendrick GA, Ralph PJ (eds) Seagrasses of Australia. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  169. Marsh H, O’Shea TJ, Reynolds III JE (2011) Ecology and conservation of the sirenia: dugongs and manatees, vol 18. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  170. Mateo MA (2010) Beach-cast Cymodocea nodosa along the shore of a Semienclosed Bay: sampling and elements to assess its ecological implications. J Coastal Res 26(2):283–291.  https://doi.org/10.2112/08-1100.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. McCloskey RM, Unsworth RKF (2015) Decreasing seagrass density negatively influences associated fauna. PeerJ 3(6):e1053.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1053CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Mellbrand K, Lavery PS, Hyndes G, Hamback PA (2011) Linking land and sea: different pathways for marine subsidies. Ecosystems 14(5):732–744.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-011-9442-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Melville AJ, Connolly RM (2005) Food webs supporting fish over subtropical mudflats are based on transported organic matter not in situ microalgae. Mar Biol 148(2):363–371.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-005-0083-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Meysman FJR, Middelburg JJ, Heip CHR (2006) Bioturbation: a fresh look at Darwin’s last idea. Trends Ecol Evol 21(12):688–695.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2006.08.002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Michael TS, Shin HW, Hanna R, Spafford DC (2008) A review of epiphyte community development: surface interactions and settlement on seagrass. J Environ Biol 29(4):629–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Middleton MJ, Bell JD, Burchmore JJ, Pollard DA, Pease BC (1984) Structural differences in the fish communities of zostera-capricorni and Posidonia australis seagrass meadows in Botany Bay, New South Wales. Aquat Bot 18(1–2):89–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(84)90082-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Miller SE (2007) DNA barcoding and the renaissance of taxonomy. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(12):4775–4776CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Mitchell CA, Custer TW, Zwank PJ (1994) Herbivory on shoalgrass by wintering readheads in Texas. J Wildl Manag 58(1):131–141.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3809559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Moksnes PO (2004) Self-regulating mechanisms in cannibalistic populations of juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas. Ecology 85(5):1343–1354.  https://doi.org/10.1890/02-0750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Moran SM, Jenkins GP, Keough MJ, Hindell JS (2003) Role of physical disturbance in structuring fish assemblages in seagrass beds in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 251:127–139.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps251127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Morris L, Jenkins G, Hatton D, Smith T (2007) Effects of nutrient additions on intertidal seagrass (Zostera muelleri) habitat in Western Port, Victoria, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 58(7):666–674.  https://doi.org/10.1071/mf06095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Nacorda HME (2008) Burrowing shrimps and seagrass dynamics in shallow-water meadows off Bolinao (NW Philippines). Ph.D. thesis. Wageningen University, Delft, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  183. Nagelkerken I, van der Velde G (2004) Relative importance of interlinked mangroves and seagrass beds as feeding habitats for juvenile reef fish on a Caribbean island. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 274:153–159.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps274153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Nagelkerken I, Dorenbosch M, Verberk W, de la Moriniere EC, van der Velde G (2000) Day-night shifts of fishes between shallow-water biotopes of a Caribbean bay, with emphasis on the nocturnal feeding of Haemulidae and Lutjanidae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 194:55–64.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps194055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Nagelkerken I, Bothwell J, Nemeth RS, Pitt JM, van der Velde G (2008) Interlinkage between Caribbean coral reefs and seagrass beds through feeding migrations by grunts (Haemulidae) depends on habitat accessibility. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 368:155–164.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Nagelkerken I, Sheaves M, Baker R, Connolly RM (2015) The seascape nursery: a novel spatial approach to identify and manage nurseries for coastal marine fauna. Fish Fish 16(2):362–371.  https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Nicastro A, Bishop MJ (2013) Effects of tidal inundation on benthic macrofauna associated with the eelgrass Zostera muelleri. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 117:238–247.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.11.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Ogden JC, Brown RA, Salesky N (1973) Grazing by echinoid Diadema antillarum Philippi: formation of halos around West Indian patch reefs. Science 182(4113):715–717.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.182.4113.715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Olds AD, Connolly RM, Pitt KA, Maxwell PS (2012) Primacy of seascape connectivity effects in structuring coral reef fish assemblages. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 462:191–203.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Orth RJ, Heck KL, Vanmontfrans J (1984) Faunal communities in seagrass beds: a review of the influence of plant structure and prey characteristics on predator prey relationships. Estuaries 7(4A):339–350.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1351618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Parker JD, Duffy JE, Orth RJ (2001) Plant species diversity and composition: experimental effects on marine epifaunal assemblages. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 224:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Peterson CH (1991) Intertidal zonation of marine invertebrates in sand and mud. Am Sci 79(3):236–249Google Scholar
  193. Peterson CH, Luettich RA, Micheli F, Skilleter GA (2004) Attenuation of water flow inside seagrass canopies of differing structure. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 268:81–92.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps268081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Polis GA, Anderson WB, Holt RD (1997) Toward an integration of landscape and food web ecology: the dynamics of spatially subsidized food webs. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 28:289–316.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Ponder WF (1999) Calopia (Calopiidae), a new genus and family of estuarine gastropods (Caenogastropods: Rissooidea) from Australia. Molluscan Res 20:17–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Poore AGB, Campbell AH, Steinberg PD (2009) Natural densities of mesograzers fail to limit growth of macroalgae or their epiphytes in a temperate algal bed. J Ecol 97(1):164–175.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2008.01457.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Prado P, Thibaut T (2008) Differences between epiphytic assemblages on introduced Caulerpa taxifolia and coexisting eelgrass (Zostera capricorni) in Botany Bay (NSW, Australia). Sci Mar 72(4):645–654.  https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2008.72n4645
  198. Preen A (1995) Impacts of dugong forafing on seagrass habitat: observational and experimental evidence for cultivation grazing. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 124(1–3):201–213.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps124201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Rachello-Dolmen PG (2013) Biodiversity and historical ecology of marine gastropod assemblages from subtropical Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Ph.D. thesis, University of QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  200. Reed BJ, Hovel KA (2006) Seagrass habitat disturbance: how loss and fragmentation of eelgrass Zostera marina influences epifaunal abundance and diversity. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 326:133–143.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps326133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Rivers DO, Short FT (2007) Effect of grazing by Canada geese Branta canadensis on an intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina meadow. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 333:271–279.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps333271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Robertson AI (1982) Population dynamics and feeding ecology of juvenile Australian salmon (Arripis-trutta) in Western Port, Victoria. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 33(2):369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Rossini RA, Rueda JL, Tibbetts IR (2014) Feeding ecology of the seagrass-grazing Nerite Smaragdia souverbiana (Montrouzier, 1863) in subtropical seagrass beds of eastern Australia. J Molluscan Stud.  https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyu003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Rotherham D, West RJ (2002) Do different seagrass species support distinct fish communities in south-eastern Australia? Fish Manage Ecol 9(4):235–248.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2400.2002.00301.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Saintilan N, Hossain K, Mazumder D (2007) Linkages between seagrass, mangrove and saltmarsh as fish habitat in the Botany Bay estuary, New South Wales. Wetlands Ecol Manage 15(4):277–286.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-006-9028-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Scanes P, Coade G, Doherty M, Hill R (2007) Evaluation of the utility of water quality based indicators of estuarine lagoon condition in NSW, Australia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 74(1–2):306–319.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.04.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Short FT, Wyllie-Echeverria S (1996) Natural and human-induced disturbance of seagrasses. Environ Conserv 23(1):17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Silberstein K, Chiffings AW, McComb AJ (1986) The loss of seagrass in cockburn sound, Western Australia. III. The effect of epiphytes on productivity of Posidonia australis hook f. Aquat Bot 24(4):355–371.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(86)90102-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Skilleter GA, Olds A, Loneragan NR, Zharikov Y (2005) The value of patches of intertidal seagrass to prawns depends on their proximity to mangroves. Mar Biol 147(2):353–365.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-005-1580-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Skilleter GA, Cameron B, Zharikov Y, Boland D, McPhee DP (2006) Effects of physical disturbance on infaunal and epifaunal assemblages in subtropical, intertidal seagrass beds. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 308:61–78.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps308061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Skilleter GA, Wegscheidl C, Lanyon JM (2007) Effects of grazing by a marine mega-herbivore on benthic assemblages in a subtropical seagrass bed. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 351:287–300.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Smith KA, Suthers IM (2000) Consistent timing of juvenile fish recruitment to seagrass beds within two Sydney estuaries. Mar Freshw Res 51(8):765–776.  https://doi.org/10.1071/mf99142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Smit AJ, Brearley A, Hyndes GA, Lavery PS, Walker DI (2005) Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of an Amphibolis griffithii seagrass bed. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 65(3):545–556.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2005.07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Smit AJ, Brearley A, Hyndes GA, Lavery PS, Walker DI (2006) Delta N-15 and delta C-13 analysis of a Posidonia sinuosa seagrass bed. Aquat Bot 84(3):277–282.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.11.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Smith TM, Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, Connolly RM (2008) Edge effects on fish associated with seagrass and sand patches. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 359:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Smith TM, Hindell JS, Jenkins GP, Connolly RM, Keough MJ (2011) Edge effects in patchy seagrass landscapes: the role of predation in determining fish distribution. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 399(1):8–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2011.01.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Spruzen FL, Richardson AMM, Woehler EJ (2008) Influence of environmental and prey variables on low tide shorebird habitat use within the Robbins Passage wetlands, Northwest Tasmania. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 78(1):122–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.11.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Suchanek TH (1983) Control of seagrass communities and sediment distribution by Callianassa (Crustacea, Thalassinidea) bioturbation. J Mar Res 41(2):281–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Suchanek TH, Williams SL, Ogden JC, Hubbard DK, Gill IP (1985) Utilization of shallow water seagrass detritus by Caribbean deep sea macrofauna delta C 13 evidence. Deep-Sea Res Part a-Oceanogr Res Pap 32(2):201–214.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(85)90028-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Tanner JE (2005) Edge effects on fauna in fragmented seagrass meadows. Austral Ecol 30(2):210–218.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2005.01438.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Thompson JJ (1998) Interseasonal changes in shorebird habitat specialisation in Moreton Bay, Australia. Emu 98:117–126.  https://doi.org/10.1071/mu98012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Thresher RE, Nichols PD, Gunn JS, Bruce BD, Furlani DM (1992) Seagrass detritus as the basis of a coastal planktonic food chain. Limnol Oceanogr 37(8):1754–1758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Townsend EC, Fonseca MS (1998) Bioturbation as a potential mechanism influencing spatial heterogeneity of North Carolina seagrass beds. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 169:123–132.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps169123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Tuya F, Vanderklift MA, Hyndes GA, Wernberg T, Thomsen MS, Hanson C (2010) Proximity to rocky reefs alters the balance between positive and negative effects on seagrass fauna. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 405:175–186.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Udy JW, Dennison WC (1997) Growth and physiological responses of three seagrass species to elevated sediment nutrients in Moreton Bay, Australia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 217(2):253–277.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(97)00060-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Udy JW, Dennison WC, Long WJL, McKenzie LJ (1999) Responses of seagrass to nutrients in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 185:257–271.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps185257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Underwood AJ (1984) Vertical and seasonal patterns in competition for microalgae between intertidal gastropods. Oecologia 64(2):211–222.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00376873CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Unsworth RKF, Taylor JD, Powell A, Bell JJ, Smith DJ (2007) The contribution of scarid herbivory to seagrass ecosystem dynamics in the Indo-Pacific. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 74(1–2):53–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.04.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Unsworth RKF, De Leon PS, Garrard SL, Jompa J, Smith DJ, Bell JJ (2008) High connectivity of Indo-Pacific seagrass fish assemblages with mangrove and coral reef habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 353:213–224.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. van Houte-Howes KSS, Turner SJ, Pilditch CA (2004) Spatial differences in macroinvertebrate communities in intertidal seagrass habitats and unvegetated sediment in three New Zealand estuaries. Estuaries 27(6):945–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Vanderklift MA, How J, Wernberg T, MacArthur LD, Heck KL, Valentine JF (2007) Proximity to reef influences density of small predatory fishes, while type of seagrass influences intensity of their predation on crabs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 340:235–243.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps340235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Verges A, Vanderklift MA, Doropoulos C, Hyndes GA (2011) Spatial patterns in herbivory on a coral reef are influenced by structural complexity but not by algal traits. Plos One 6(2).  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017115
  233. Verhoeven MPC, Kelaher BP, Bishop MJ, Ralph PJ (2012) Epiphyte grazing enhances productivity of remnant seagrass patches. Austral Ecol 37(8):885–892.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2011.02332.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Verweij MC, Nagelkerken I, Wartenbergh SLJ, Pen IR, van der Velde G (2006) Caribbean mangroves and seagrass beds as daytime feeding habitats for juvenile French grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum. Mar Biol 149(6):1291–1299.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0305-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Walker DI, Lukatelich RJ, Bastyan G, McComb AJ (1989) Effect of boat moorings on seagrass beds near Perth, Western Australia. Aquat Bot 36(1):69–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(89)90092-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Walters K, Moriarty DJW (1993) The effects of complex trophic interactions on a marine microbenthic community. Ecology 74(5):1475–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Waltham NJ, Connolly RM (2006) Trophic strategies of garfish, Arrhamphus sclerolepis, in natural coastal wetlands and artificial urban waterways. Mar Biol 148(5):1135–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Ward TJ (1984) Role of acute metal toxicity in structuring seagrass fauna near a lead smelter. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 17(2):117–124.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps017117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Ward TJ, Young PC (1982) Effects of sediment trace-metals and particle-size on the community structure of epibenthic seagrass fauna near a lead smelter, South Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 9(2):137–146.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps009137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Warry FY, Hindell JS, Macreadie PI, Jenkins GP, Connolly RM (2009) Integrating edge effects into studies of habitat fragmentation: a test using meiofauna in seagrass. Oecologia 159(4):883–892.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-008-1258-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Watson GF, Robertson AI, Littlejohn MJ (1984) Invertebrate macrobenthos of the seagrass communities in Western Port, Victoria. Aquat Bot 18(1–2):175–197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(84)90086-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Waycott M, Duarte CM, Carruthers TJB, Orth RJ, Dennison WC, Olyarnik S, Calladine A, Fourqurean JW, Heck KL, Hughes AR, Kendrick GA, Kenworthy WJ, Short FT, Williams SL (2009) Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(30):12377–12381.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0905620106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Welsh JQ, Bellwood DR (2012) How far do schools of roving herbivores rove? A case study using Scarus rivulatus. Coral Reefs 31(4):991–1003.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-012-0922-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Wernberg T, Vanderklift MA, How J, Lavery PS (2006) Export of detached macroalgae from reefs to adjacent seagrass beds. Oecologia 147(4):692–701.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0318-7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. West R (2012) Impacts of recreational boating activities on the seagrass Posidonia in SE Australia. Wetlands (Australia) 26(2):3–13Google Scholar
  246. White KS, Westera MB, Kendrick GA (2011) Spatial patterns in fish herbivory in a temperate Australian seagrass meadow. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 93(4):366–374.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2011.05.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Wirsing AJ, Heithaus MR, Dill LM (2007) Can you dig it? Use of excavation, a risky foraging tactic, by dugongs is sensitive to predation danger. Anim Behav 74:1085–1091.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.02.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Woods CMC, Schiel DR (1997) Use of seagrass Zostera novazelandica (Setchell, 1933) as habitat and food by the crab Macrophthalmus hirtipes (Heller, 1862) (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) on rocky intertidal platforms in southern New Zealand. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 214(1–2):49–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(96)02767-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Worthington DG, Ferrell DJ, McNeill SE, Bell JD (1992) Effects of the shoot density of seagrass on fish and decapods: are correlation evident over larger spatial scales? Mar Biol 112(1):139–146.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00349737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Wressnig A, Booth DJ (2007) Feeding preferences of two seagrass grazing monacanthid fishes. J Fish Biol 71(1):272–278.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01472.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Wressnig A, Booth DJ (2008) Patterns of seagrass biomass removal by two temperate Australian fishes (Monacanthidae). Mar Freshw Res 59(5):408–417.  https://doi.org/10.1071/mf07209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. York PH, Booth DJ, Glasby TM, Pease BC (2006) Fish assemblages in habitats dominated by Caulerpa taxifolia and native seagrasses in south-eastern Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 312:223–234.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps312223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. York PH, Kelaher BP, Booth DJ, Bishop MJ (2012) Trophic responses to nutrient enrichment in a temperate seagrass food chain. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 449:291–296.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. York PH, Smith TM, Coles RG, McKenna SA, Connolly RM, Irving AD, Jackson EL, McMahon K, Runcie JW, Sherman CDH, Sullivan BK, Trevanthan-Tackett SM, Brodersen KE, Carter AB, Ewers CJ, Lavery P, Roelfsema C, Sinclair EA, Strydom S, Tanner JE, van Diijk K, Warry FY, Waycott M, Whitehead S (2017) Identifying knowledge gaps in seagrass research and management: an Australian perspective 127:163–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2016.06.006
  255. Zharikov Y, Skilleter GA (2002) Sex-specific intertidal habitat use in subtropically wintering Bar-tailed Godwits. Can J Zool 80(11):1918–1929.  https://doi.org/10.1139/z02-178CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul H. York
    • 1
  • Glenn A. Hyndes
    • 2
  • Melanie J. Bishop
    • 3
  • Richard S. K. Barnes
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Tropical Water and Aquatic Ecosystem ResearchJames Cook UniversityCairnsAustralia
  2. 2.School of Natural SciencesEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesMacquarie UniversityNorth RydeAustralia
  4. 4.School of Biological Sciences & Centre for Marine ScienceUniversity of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations