Brief History of the Scientific Method and Its Application in Oncology

  • Vinicius de Lima Vazquez
  • Raphael L. C. Araújo


In this chapter, we present a brief overview of the development of scientific thought and the scientific method from prehistoric times to the present day. Contributions from the ancient Greeks and from the Arabic world in the Middle Ages and advances from the times of the Renaissance and the industrial revolution, as well as contributions from recent times, are outlined and the most prominent individuals and achievements in each era are described. From the cognitive revolution early in the history of humankind to the recent generation of massive data and its challenges, the leading landmarks of the scientific method and its applications in oncology are summarized here.


Scientific thought Scientific method History of method 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vinicius de Lima Vazquez
    • 1
  • Raphael L. C. Araújo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Sarcoma and Melanoma UnityTeaching and Research Institute/IEP and Molecular Oncology Research Center/CPOM, Barretos Cancer HospitalBarretosBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Upper Gastrointestinal and Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary SurgeryBarretos Cancer HospitalBarretosBrazil

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