IR Playbook pp 305-312 | Cite as

GI Bleeding

  • Michael DarcyEmail author


Gastrointestinal bleeding is a very common clinical problem that frequently gets referred to interventional radiology for therapy. Endoscopy is the key first step for upper GI bleeding for both diagnosis and therapy but is less frequently utilized for lower GI bleeding. For lower GI bleeding, CT angiography is the preferred screening test to determine if bleeding is sufficient to warrant arteriography and embolization. Upper GI embolization can be done safely and effectively in the majority of cases with the main gastroduodenal or left gastric arteries being the target in most cases. Lower GI embolization involves super-selective embolization at the level of the vasa recta in order to avoid ischemia. When performed at that level, the rate of significant ischemia is less than 5%.


Gastrointestinal bleeding Upper GI bleeding Lower GI bleeding Mesenteric arteriography Celiac arteriography Superior mesenteric arteriography Inferior mesenteric arteriography Embolization 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chief of Interventional Radiolgy, Mallinckrodt Institute of RadiologyWashington University in St LouisSt. LouisUSA

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