Male varicocele is the most common correctable cause of male infertility. It is most common in the left side; however it can frequently be bilateral. Isolated right-sided varicocele should prompt work-up for retroperitoneal pathology. Varicocele is a clinical diagnosis, with patients typically presenting with a characteristic “bag-of-worms” appearance; testicular pain is unusual. Treatment for varicocele is indicated for symptoms, testicular atrophy, and semen dysfunction. Minimally invasive endovascular treatment has become the mainstay therapy for varicocele and is routinely performed in the outpatient setting with coils and liquid embolics.
KeywordsVaricocele Pampiniform plexus Male infertility Orchialgia Varicocele embolization Gonadal vein Testicular function Dubin-Amelar grading system Venous dilation Scrotal ultrasound Gonadal vein insufficiency Gonadal vein reflux
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