Advertisement

Writing for Survival: Letters of Sarajevo Jews Before Their Liquidation During World War II

  • Francine Friedman
Chapter
Part of the Modernity, Memory and Identity in South-East Europe book series (MOMEIDSEE)

Abstract

Throughout the many centuries of their sojourn in Bosnia and Herzegovina under various empires and regimes, the Bosnian Jews were integrated—socially, politically, economically, and culturally. There was a long and peaceful intermingling of the Jewish community with the Bosnian Muslim, Serb, and Croat communities, whose leaderships showed a mutual acceptance and respect for the habits and rituals of the different religious groups. However, the events of the mid-twentieth century destroyed that characterization. Preserved letters written by Sarajevo Jews detailing some of their living conditions shed light on their situation. The chapter provides insight into life in wartime Sarajevo and a situation when references to belonging and history meant nothing to representatives of the occupying forces.

References

  1. American Jewish Committee. 1982. The Jews of Yugoslavia. In The Jewish Communities of Nazi-Occupied Europe. New York: Fertig.Google Scholar
  2. Deak, I. 2002. Jews and Catholics. New York Review of Books, December 19.Google Scholar
  3. Friedman, F. 1996. The Bosnian Muslims: Denial of a Nation. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  4. Gaon, A., ed. 2001. Mi smo prezivjeli: Jevreji o Holokaustu. Belgrade: Jevrejski istorijski muzej.Google Scholar
  5. Gašić, Milena. 2006. Fond: Državno-ravnateljstvo za gospodarstvenu obnovu - podružnica Sarajevo 1941.-1942.god. Sarajevo: Istorijski Arhiv.Google Scholar
  6. Hilberg, Raul. 1985. The Destruction of the European Jews, Vol. II, 711. New York: Holmes & Meier.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 1992. Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe 1933–1945. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  8. Jelić-Butić, F. 1977. Ustaše i Nezavisna Država Hrvatska 1941–1945. Zagreb: Sveučilišna Naklada Liber.Google Scholar
  9. Jelinek, Y.A. 1990. Bosnia-Herzegovina at War: Relations Between Moslems and Non-Moslems. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 5: 275–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaplan, J. 1964. Possible Remains of Two Jewish Synagogues in Bosnia, Yugoslavia. Museum Haaretz Bulletin 6: 66–70.Google Scholar
  11. Kreso, M. 2006. The Nazi “Final Solution”of the Jewish Question in the Occupied Countries of the Western Balkans 1941–1945. Sarajevo: Institute for the Research of Crimes Against Humanity and International Law.Google Scholar
  12. Lengel-Krizman, N. 1990. A Contribution to the Study of Terror in the So-Called Independent State of Croatia: Concentration Camps for Women in 1941–1942. Yad Vashem Studies 20: 1–52.Google Scholar
  13. Levi-Dale, D., ed. 1969. Spomenica 1919–1969 Savez jevrejskih opstina jugoslavije. Belgrade: Srboštampa.Google Scholar
  14. Matković, H., and F. Mirošević. 2003. Povijest 4 (2nd ed.). Skolska knjiga: Zagreb.Google Scholar
  15. Ramet, S.P. 2006a. The NDH—An Introduction. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 7: 399–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. ———. 2006b. The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Schwartz, S. 2005. Sarajevo Rose: A Balkan Jewish Notebook. London: Saqi Books.Google Scholar
  18. Žerjavić, V. 1997. Demographic Indications of the Jewish Ordeal in the Independent State of Croatia. In Anti-Semitism Holocaust Anti-Fascism, ed. I. Goldstein and N.L. Krizman. Zagreb: Zagreb Jewish Community.Google Scholar

Other Sources

  1. Arhiv Bosna i Hercegovina. “Spisak: otpuštenih činovnika i službenika Tehničkog odjela, Tehničkog Odeljka pri Kotarskom poglavarstvu u Sarajevu i Zavodu za meterologiju u Sarajevu,” Zagreb: Nezavisna država Hrvatska. Povjereništvo Sarajevo Tehnički odjel. (9 May 1941). V-Broj: 203/41. [DSCN6516].Google Scholar
  2. Srećko Bujas, AbiH, Zemaljska komisija za utvrdjivanje ratnih zlocina okupatora i njihovih pomagaca za Bosnia and Herzegovina, box 3.Google Scholar
  3. Narodne novine (30 April 1941).Google Scholar
  4. ———. (4 June 1941).Google Scholar
  5. Hrvatski narod (29 June 1941).Google Scholar
  6. Zionist Archives, Jerusalem S26/1399.Google Scholar
  7. Istorijski Arhiv, Sarajevo, “Fond: Državno-ravnateljstvo za gospodarstvenu obnovu - podružnica Sarajevo 1941.-1942.god.”Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francine Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceBall State UniversityMuncieUSA

Personalised recommendations