Advertisement

Gaming Versus Storytelling: Understanding Children’s Interactive Experiences in a Museum Setting

  • Marko Radeta
  • Vanessa Cesario
  • Sónia Matos
  • Valentina Nisi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10690)

Abstract

While gaming and storytelling are considered to be common approaches to engage audiences with a museum’s collections, a formal comparison of the two has not been found in literature. While gaming and storytelling are considered to be common approaches to engage audiences with a museum’s collections, a formal comparison of the two has not been found in literature. In this paper, we present the design and comparative study of two distinct interventions, namely a mobile game and a mobile story that were designed to engage a young audience with the exhibit of the local natural history museum. Focusing on the same scientific content derived from the museum’s collection, we compare the effects of both interactive experiences on a group of children. When comparing engagement, enjoyment and learning outcomes, we correlate results with data derived from observations and skin conductance biofeedback. The data collected so far suggest that children are 27% more excited when using the game application compared with the story driven one. Moreover, we find that children’s excitement peaks when encountering selected artefacts presented in the museum exhibit. Finally, children’s learning nearly doubled (44%) when using the game based experience versus the story. We conclude the paper by discussing the implications of our findings and by proposing potential future improvements.

Keywords

Interactive experiences Gaming Storytelling Skin conductance Proximity sensing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to express our gratitude to the director and staff from the Museum of Natural History of Funchal (MNHF). We are very thankful to Dina Dionisio from M-ITI for helping us during the user-testing sessions with the children. Also, a special thank you goes to actress Sophie Gouveia from Teatro Metaphora in Câmara de Lobos. We would also like to acknowledge the work of animation students Tyler Carrigan, Pamela Gray and Amy Bruning from Edinburgh College of Art. The sound recording of a pilot whale that was used in the Ocean Stories application was provided by the Whale Museum of Madeira while sounds of a monk seal were provided by the Madeiran Institute for Nature Conservation (IP-RAM). The work reported in this contribution was developed with the support of ARDITI (Project Number M14-20-09-5369-FSE-000001), the University of Edinburgh (CAHSS Knowledge Exchange and Impact grant) and the MITIExcell - EXCELENCIA INTERNACIONAL DE IDT&I NAS TIC funding (Project Number M1420-01-01450FEDER0000002), provided by the Regional Government of Madeira.

References

  1. 1.
    Aarseth, E.: Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aarseth, E.: Genre trouble: narrativism and the art of simulation. In: Wardrip-Fruin, N., Harrigan, P. (eds.) First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bakken, S.M., Pierroux, P.: Framing a topic: mobile video tasks in museum learning. Learn. Cult. Soc. Interact. 5, 54–65 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barton, J., Kindberg, T.: The Cooltown User Experience. HP Hewlett Packard, Palo Alto (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beale, K.: Museums at Play: Games, Interaction and Learning. Museums Etc, Edinburgh (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bedford, L.: Storytelling: the real work of museums. Curator Mus. J. 44(1), 27–34 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bogost, I.: Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cabrera, J.S., Frutos, H.M., Stoica, A.G., et al.: Mystery in the museum: collaborative learning activities using handheld devices. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, pp. 315–318. ACM (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cahill, C., Kuhn, A., Schmoll, S., Lo, W.-T., McNally, B., Quintana, C.: Mobile learning in museums: how mobile supports for learning influence student behavior. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, pp. 21–28. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Charitonos, K., Blake, C., Scanlon, E., Jones, A.: Museum learning via social and mobile technologies: (how) can online interactions enhance the visitor experience? Br. J. Educ. Technol. 43(5), 802–819 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clegg, T., Norooz, L., Kang, S., Byrne, V., Katzen, M., Valez, R., Bonsignore, E.: Live physiological sensing and visualization ecosystems: an activity theory analysis. In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 2029–2041. ACM (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Damala, A., van der Vaart, M., Clarke, L., et al.: Evaluating tangible and multisensory museum visiting experiences: lessons learned from the meSch project. In: Museums and the Web 2016, MW 2016 (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Deterding, S., Björk, S.L., Nacke, L.E., Dixon, D., Lawley, E.: Designing gamification: creating gameful and playful experiences. In: CHI 2013 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 3263–3266. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dijk, E., Lingnau, A., Kockelkorn, H.: Measuring enjoyment of an interactive museum experience. In: Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI 2012), pp. 249–256 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2388676.2388728
  15. 15.
    Dini, R., Paternò, F., Santoro, C.: An environment to support multi-user interaction and cooperation for improving museum visits through games. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, pp. 515–521. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Edwards, S., Schaller, D.: The name of the game: museums and digital learning elements. In: Din, H., Hecht, P. (eds.) The Digital Museum: A Think Guide. American Association of Museums, Washington, DC (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Falk, J.H., Dierking, L.D.: Learning from Museums: Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek (2000)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fleck, M., Frid, M., Kindberg, T., O’Brien-Strain, E., Rajani, R., Spasojevic, M.: From informing to remembering: ubiquitous systems in interactive museums. IEEE Pervasive Comput. 1(2), 13–21 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hawkey, R.: Learning with Digital Technologies in Museums, Science Centres and Galleries. NESTA Futurelab Research (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hernandez, J., McDuff, D., Benavides, X., Amores, J., Maes, P., Picard, R.W.: AutoEmotive: bringing empathy to the driving experience to manage stress. In: Proceedings of the Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems, (DIS 2014), Vancouver, BC, Canada, 21–25 June 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1145/2598784.2602780
  21. 21.
    Hsi, S., Fait, H.: RFID enhances visitors’ museum experience at the exploratorium. Commun. ACM 48(9), 60–65 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ioannidis, Y., El Raheb, K., Toli, E., Katifori, A., Boile, M., Mazura, M.: One object many stories: Introducing ICT in museums and collections through digital storytelling. In: Digital Heritage International Congress (DigitalHeritage), vol. 1, pp. 421–424. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jenkins, H.: Game design as narrative architecture. In: Wardrip-Fruin, N., Harrigan, P. (eds.) First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Juul, J.: Games telling stories? - a brief note on games and narratives. Game Stud. 1(1) (2001). http://www.gamestudies.org
  25. 25.
    Katifori, A., et al.: CHESS: personalized storytelling experiences in museums. In: Mitchell, A., Fernández-Vara, C., Thue, D. (eds.) ICIDS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8832, pp. 232–235. Springer, Cham (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12337-0_28 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kelly, L.: The interrelationships between adult museum visitors’ learning and their museum experiences (2007). http://australianmuseum.net.au/uploads/documents/6663/final%20thesis%20for%20graduation_kelly.pdf
  27. 27.
    Koushik, M., Lee, E.J., Pieroni, L., Sun, E., Yeh, C.-W.: Re-envisioning the museum experience: combining new technology with social-networking. In: Yang, H.S., Malaka, R., Hoshino, J., Han, J.H. (eds.) ICEC 2010. LNCS, vol. 6243, pp. 248–253. Springer, Heidelberg (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15399-0_24 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Laurel, B.: Computers as Theatre. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston (1991)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liang, F., Nakatani, M., Kunze, K., Minamizawa, K.: Personalized record of the city Wander with a wearable device: a pilot study. In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing: Adjunct, pp. 141–144. ACM, New York (2016)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Martin, J., Trummer, C.: Personalized multimedia information system for museums and exhibitions. In: Maybury, M., Stock, O., Wahlster, W. (eds.) INTETAIN 2005. LNCS, vol. 3814, pp. 332–335. Springer, Heidelberg (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11590323_46 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marty, P.F., Mendenhall, A., Douglas, I., et al.: The iterative design of a mobile learning application to support scientific inquiry. J. Learn. Des. 6(2), 41–66 (2013)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Murray, J.: From game-story to cyberdrama. In: Wardrip-Fruin, N., Harrigan, P. (eds.) First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nilsson, T., Blackwell, A., Hogsden, C., Scruton, D.: Ghosts! a location-based Bluetooth LE mobile game for museum exploration. arXiv:1607.05654 [cs] (2016). Accessed 14 Jan 2017
  34. 34.
    O’Hara, K., Kindberg, T., Glancy, M., Baptista, L., Sukumaran, B., Kahana, G., Rowbotham, J.: Collecting and sharing location-based content on mobile phones in a zoo visitor experience. Comput. Support. Coop. Work (CSCW) 16(1–2), 11–44 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Onorati, F., Regalia, G., Caborni, C., Picard, R.: Improvement of a convulsive seizure detector relying on accelerometer and electrodermal activity collected continuously by a wristband. Presented at the 2016 Epilepsy Pipeline Conference, San Francisco, California (2016)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Picard, R.W.: Measuring affect in the wild. In: D’Mello, S., Graesser, A., Schuller, B., Martin, J.-C. (eds.) ACII 2011. LNCS, vol. 6974, p. 3. Springer, Heidelberg (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24600-5_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pierroux, P., Bannon, L., Walker, K., Hall, T., Kaptelinin, V., Stuedahl, D.: MUSTEL: framing the design of technology-enhanced learning activities for museum visitors. Archives & Museum Informatics (2007)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Read, J., Macfarlane, S.: Endurability, engagement and expectations: measuring children’s fun. In: Interaction Design and Children, pp. 1–23. Shaker Publishing (2002)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ryan, M.: From narrative games to playable stories: toward a poetics of interactive narrative. Storyworlds J. Narrat. Stud. 1, 43–59 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sánchez, I., Cortés, M., Riekki, J., Oja, M.: NFC-based interactive learning environments for children. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, pp. 205–208. ACM (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1145/1999030.1999062
  41. 41.
    Shaffer, D.W., Squire, K.R., Halverson, R., Gee, J.P.: Video games and the future of learning. Phi Delta Kappan 87(2), 105–111 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sparrow, L.: Variations in visual exploration and physiological reactions during art perception when children visit the museum with a mobile electronic guide. In: Kapoula, Z., Vernet, M. (eds.) Aesthetics and Neuroscience, pp. 131–137. Springer, Cham (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46233-2_9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Springer, J., Borst Brazas, J., Kajder, S.: Digital storytelling at the national gallery of art. In: Bearman, D., Trant, J. (eds.) Museums and the Web. Archives & Museums Informatics, Arlington (2004)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sung, Y.-T., Chang, K.-E., Hou, H.-T., Chen, P.-F.: Designing an electronic guidebook for learning engagement in a museum of history. Comput. Hum. Behav. 26(1), 74–83 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sykes, E.R., Pentland, S., Nardi, S.: Context-aware mobile apps using iBeacons: towards smarter interactions. In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, pp. 120–129. IBM Corp. (2015)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Westerink, J.H., Van Den Broek, E.L., Schut, M.H., Van Herk, J., Tuinenbreijer, K.: Computing emotion awareness through galvanic skin response and facial electromyography. In: Westerink, J.H.D.M., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, T.J.M., Pasveer, W.F., de Ruyter, B. (eds.) Probing Experience, pp. 149–162. Springer, Dordrecht (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6593-4_14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wyman, B., Smith, S., Meyers, D., Godfrey, M.: Digital Storytelling in museums: observations and best practices. Curator Mus. J. 54(4), 461–468 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Xhembulla, J.R.: Intrigue at the museum: facilitating engagement and learning through a location-based mobile game. International Association for the Development of the Information Society (2014). https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED557238. Accessed 15 Jan 2017
  49. 49.
    Zimmerman, E.: Narrative, interactivity, play, and games: four naughty concepts in need of discipline. In: Wardrip-Fruin, N., Harrigan, P. (eds.) First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marko Radeta
    • 1
  • Vanessa Cesario
    • 1
  • Sónia Matos
    • 1
  • Valentina Nisi
    • 1
  1. 1.Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute (M-ITI)FunchalPortugal

Personalised recommendations