Advertisement

Fundamentals

  • Enzo Silvestri
  • Silvia Perugin Bernardi
  • Elena Massone
  • Riccardo Sartoris
Chapter

Abstract

Ultrasonography (US) is one of the most widely used imaging technologies in the first-level study of each human body structure, including soft-tissue components of the musculoskeletal system and nerves.

In this chapter, we describe some of the fundamental principles and physics underlying US technology, also including power Doppler and sonoelastography imaging.

Keywords

Ultrasound Peripheral nerves Power Doppler Sonoelastography Musculoskeletal system Anatomy 

Suggested Readings

  1. Arda K, Ciledag N, Aktas E, Kadri Arıbas B, Köse K. Quantitative assessment of normal soft-tissue elasticity using shear-wave ultrasound elastography. AJR. 2011;197(3):532–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Christopher R. Doppler US: the basics. Radiographics. 1991;11:109–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Mitchell DG. Color doppler imaging: principles, limitations, and artifacts. Radiology. 1990;177:1–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Drakonaki EE, Allen GM, Wilson DJ. Ultrasound elastography for musculoskeletal applications. Br J Radiol. 2012;85(1019):1435–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Evan J. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: topics in US doppler US techniques: concepts of blood flow detection and flow dynamics. Radiographics. 2003;23:1315–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Klauser AS, Miyamoto H, Bellmann-Weiler R, Feuchtner GM, Wick MC, Jaschke WR. Sonoelastography: musculoskeletal applications. Radiology. 2014;272(3):622–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kot BC, Zhang ZJ, Lee AW, Leung VY, Fu SN. Elastic modulus of muscle and tendon with shear wave ultrasound elastography: variations with different technical settings. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e44348.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Kot Wing BC, Zhi Jie Z, Chun Lee AW, Fong Leung VY, Ngor FS. Elastic modulus of muscle and tendon with shear wave ultrasound elastography: variations with different technical settings. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e44448.Google Scholar
  9. Martinoli C, Bianchi S. Ultrasound of the musculoskeletal system. Berlin/New York: Springer; 2007.Google Scholar
  10. O’Neill J. Musculoskeletal ultrasound: anatomy and technique. New York: Springer; 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pavčec Z, Žokalj I, Saghir H, Pal A, Roić G. Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow-up of the muscle rupture and an arteriovenous fistula of the thigh in 12 year boy. Radiol Oncol. 2006;40(4):211–5.Google Scholar
  12. Silvestri E, Martinoli C, Derchi LE, et al. Echotexture of peripheral nerves: correlation between US and histologic findings and criteria to differentiate tendons. Radiology. 1995;197:291–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Taylor KJ, Holland S. Doppler US part I. Basic principles, instrumentation, and pitfalls. Radiology. 1990;174:297–307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enzo Silvestri
    • 1
  • Silvia Perugin Bernardi
    • 2
  • Elena Massone
    • 2
  • Riccardo Sartoris
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyOspedale Evangelico InternazionaleGenovaItaly
  2. 2.Postgraduate School of Radiology, Genoa UniversityGenovaItaly

Personalised recommendations