Second-Level Imaging

  • Sergio Gianesini
  • Paolo Zamboni
  • Erika Mendoza


Diagnostics of varicose veins sometimes goes beyond the exploration of the leg and the ultrasound of superficial leg veins, as the origin of the patient’s complaints can be located in another region. Deep vein exploration might require specialized techniques after recidivant thrombosis. Pelvic venous drainage impairment is another field underdiagnosed for a long time. Modern investigation methods as CT or MRI imaging with contrast, but specially intravenous ultrasound, have opened new approaches to pelvic pathology. This results in better comprehension of the pathology and the possibility of a tailored treatment design.


Impaired Venous Drainage Non-thrombotic Iliac Vein Lesions (NIVL) Pelvic Congestion Syndrome (PCS) Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) Obstruction Hypothesis 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Gianesini
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paolo Zamboni
    • 3
    • 5
  • Erika Mendoza
    • 4
  1. 1.Vascular Diseases Center, University of FerraraFerraraItaly
  2. 2.USUHS UniversityBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.School of Vascular Surgery and Vascular Diseases CenterUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly
  4. 4.Unit of Translational SurgeryAOU FerraraFerraraItaly
  5. 5.VenenpraxisWunstorfGermany

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