Advertisement

Transrational Methods of Peace Research: The Researcher as (Re)source

  • Norbert Koppensteiner
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter takes one step towards conceptualizing a transrational peace research methodology through the lens of the researcher. It commences from the assumption that positivist, modern research tries to negate the influence of the researcher on the research topic and is guided by ideals of objectivity and neutrality, postmodern research seeks to problematize the researcher by contextualizing her position in order to make visible unexamined biases and assumptions. In postmodern manner, it is assumed that any research conducted in the field of Peace Studies cannot be separated from the researcher’s particular perspective that frames and shapes the research process. This chapter then complements the postmodern critical stance by assuming in humanistic fashion hat the researcher is both source for and resource during the research process. The text so (1) gives a very brief overview on modern and postmodern research methodologies as they are relevant for Peace Studies. It (2) renders the ontological and anthropological basis for a transrational peace research that takes the researcher as starting point, (3) elaborates the epistemological consequences of such a view and (4) briefly addresses the ethical aspects that are implicit in this transrational shift. Turning to the researcher as (re)source (5) five systemically interrelated forms of knowing are identified. The question of (6) how to possibly structure research findings is addressed. The chapter concludes with (7) a general remark about the transdisciplinary nature of such (transrational) peace research.

References

  1. Abram, David. 1997. The Spell of the Sensuous. Perception and Language in a More-than-Human World. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  2. Ackerly, Brooke A., Maria Stern, and Jacqui True. 2006. Feminist Methodologies for International Relations. In Feminist Methodologies for International Relations, ed. Brooke Ackerly, Maria Stern, and Jacqui True, 1–15. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, Rosemarie. 2011. Intuitive Inquiry. The Ways of the Heart in Human Science Research. In Transforming Self and Others Through Research. Transpersonal Research Skills for the Human Sciences and Humanities, ed. Rosemarie Anderson and William Braud, 15–70. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, Rosemarie, and William Braud. 1998. Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Honoring Human Experience. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 2011. Transforming Self and Others Through Research. Transpersonal Research Methods and Skills for the Human Sciences and Humanities. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  6. Buber, Martin. 2010. I and Thou. Mansfield Center: Martino Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Butler, Judith. 1999. Geneder Trouble. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Clements, Jennifer. 2011. Organic Inquiry. Research in Partnership with Spirit. In Transforming Self and Other Through Research. Transpersonal Research Methods and Skills for the Human Sciences and Humanities, 131–160. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cooper, Jean C. 2010. An Illustrated Introduction to Taoism. The Wisdom of the Sages. Bloomington: World Wisdom.Google Scholar
  10. Curle, Adam. 2006. The Fragile Voice of Love. Charlbury: John Carpenter Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Daniels, Michael. 2005. Shadow, Self, Spirit. Essays in Transpersonal Psychology. Exeter: Imprint Academic.Google Scholar
  12. Dietrich, Wolfgang. 2012. Interpretations of Peace in History and Culture. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ———. 2013. Elicitive Conflict Transformation and the Transrational Shift in Peace Politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. ———. 2015. Variationen über die vielen Frieden, Band 3: Elicitive Conflict Mapping. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  15. Dychtwald, Ken. 1986. Bodymind. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin.Google Scholar
  16. Ferrer, Jorge N. 2002. Revisioning Transpersonal Theory. A Participatory Vision of Human Spirituality. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  17. Gendlin, Eugene. 1962. Experiencing and the Creation of Meaning. A Philosophical and Psychological Approach to the Subjective. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Grof, Stanislav. 1985. Beyond the Brain. Birth, Death and Transcendence in Psychotherapy. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  19. Halifax, Joan. 1982. Shaman. The Wounded Healer. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  20. Hall, Stuart. 2000. Who Needs Identity? In Identity: A Reader, ed. Paul Du Gay, Jessica Evans, and Peter Redman, 15–30. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Hampson, Gary P. 2010. Western-Islamic and Native American Genealogies of Integral Education. In Integral Education. New Directions for Higher Learning, ed. Sean Esbjörn-Hargens, Jonathan Reams, and Olen Gunnlaugson, 17–34. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hanna, Thomas. 1995. What Is Somatics? In Bone, Breath & Gesture. Practices of Embodiment, ed. Don Hanlon Johnson, 339–352. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
  23. Hart, Tobin. 2000. Deep Empathy. In Transpersonal Knowing. Exploring the Horizon of Consciousness, ed. Tobin Hart, Peter L. Nelson, and Kaisa Puhakka, 31–54. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hart, Tobin, Peter L. Nelson, and Kaisa Puhakka. 2000. Transpersonal Knowing. Exploring the Horizon of Consciousness. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hartley, Linda. 2004. Somatic Psychology. Body, Mind and Meaning. London: Whurr Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. James, William. 1985. The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  27. Judith, Anodea. 2004. Eastern Body, Western Mind. Psychology and the Chakra System as a Path to the Self. Berkeley: Celestial Arts.Google Scholar
  28. Jung, Carl Gustav. 1964. Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. ———. 2008. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. 1999. Philosophy in the Flesh. The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  31. Lederach, John Paul. 2005. The Moral Imagination. The Art and Soul of Building Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Levine, Peter A. 2010. In an Unspoken Voice. How the Body Releases Trauma and Restores Goodness. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
  33. Ling, L.H.M. 2014. Imagining World Politics. Sihar & Shenya. A Fable for Our Times. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Marrone, Robert. 1990. Body of Knowledge. An Introduction to Body/Mind Psychology. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  35. Maslow, Abraham H. 2011. Toward a Psychology of Being. Blacksburg: Wilder Publications.Google Scholar
  36. McGoey, Kathleen. 2013. Harmonizing Heavens and Earth. A Daoist Shamanic Approach to Peace Work. Vienna: LIT.Google Scholar
  37. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 1968. The Visible and the Invisible. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1968. The Will to Power. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  39. ———. 1989. Beyond Good and Evil. Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  40. OECD. 2002. Frascati Manual 2002. Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Studies Development. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/frascati-manual-2002_9789264199040-en. Accessed 12 May 2014.
  41. Perls, Fritz. 1973. The Gestalt Approach & Eye Witness to Therapy. Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books.Google Scholar
  42. Rogers, Carl R. 1995a. A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  43. ———. 1995b. On Becoming a Person. A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  44. Romanyshyn, Robert D. 2007. The Wounded Researcher. Research with Soul in Mind. New Orleans: Spring Journal Books.Google Scholar
  45. Roth, Gabrielle. 1998a. Maps to Ecstasy. A Healing Journey for the Untamed Spirit. Novato: New World Library.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 1998b. Sweat Your Prayers. Movement as Spiritual Practice. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 2004. Connections. The Five Threads of Intuitive Wisdom. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  48. Thurschwell, Pamela. 2009. Sigmund Freud. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Todres, Les. 2007. Embodied Enquiry. Phenomenological Touchstones for Research, Psychotherapy and Spirituality. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  50. Tzu, Lao. 2008. Tao to Ching. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin.Google Scholar
  51. UNESCO Chair for Peace Studies. 2014. Elicitive Conflict Mapping. https://www.uibk.ac.at/peacestudies/ecm/principles/. Accessed 10 Mar 2016.
  52. Vaughan, Frances. 2000. The Inward Arc. Healing in Psychotherapy and Spirituality. Lincoln: Backinprint.com.Google Scholar
  53. Walch, Sylvester. 2003. Dimensionen der menschlichen Seele. Transpersonale Psychologie und Holotropes Atmen. Düsseldorf: Walter.Google Scholar
  54. Wilber, Ken. 2001. A Theory of Everything: An Integral Vision for Business, Politics, Science and Spirituality. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norbert Koppensteiner
    • 1
  1. 1.University of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations