Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

  • Winnie Matthes
  • Anya Vollpracht
  • Yury Villagrán
  • Siham Kamali-Bernard
  • Doug Hooton
  • Elke Gruyaert
  • Marios Soutsos
  • Nele De Belie
Part of the RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports book series (RILEM State Art Reports, volume 25)


Since the discovery of the latent hydraulic reactivity of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (ggbfs) by Emil Langen at the end of the 19th century, this material has been used successfully as cement and concrete addition. This chapter includes all relevant information about this valuable material—from production and processing to the effect, which ggbfs additions have on the concrete performance. In this context, light is shed on decisive performance parameters of ggbfs. Of special interest nowadays is certainly also the information given about trace element contents in ggbfs and their leachability. Here and throughout the entire chapter, the latest insights from research and development work are included. Last but not least, the chapter contains very practical information when it comes to the use of ggbfs in concrete, including insights on rheological effects, concrete color and “greening”, and adequate curing. Moreover, an overview about relevant norms and standards on ggbfs as concrete addition is given.


Carbonation Chloride ingress Concrete Granulated blast-furnace slag Ggbfs Permeability Slag cement Strength Workability 


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Copyright information

© RILEM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Winnie Matthes
    • 1
  • Anya Vollpracht
    • 2
  • Yury Villagrán
    • 3
    • 4
  • Siham Kamali-Bernard
    • 5
  • Doug Hooton
    • 6
  • Elke Gruyaert
    • 4
    • 8
  • Marios Soutsos
    • 7
  • Nele De Belie
    • 4
  1. 1.Holcim Technology Ltd.HolderbankSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute of Building Materials Research, RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Concrete TechnologyLEMITLa PlataArgentina
  4. 4.Magnel Laboratory for Concrete ResearchGhent UniversityZwijnaardeBelgium
  5. 5.Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Génie MécaniqueINSA-RennesRennes Cedex 7France
  6. 6.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  7. 7.School of Natural and Built EnvironmentQueen’s University BelfastBelfastUK
  8. 8.Structural Mechanics and Building Materials, Technology Cluster Construction, Department of Civil EngineeringKU LeuvenGhentBelgium

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