Influence of Latitudinal Zonality on Some Chemical Properties of Urban Soils

  • Irina A. MartynenkoEmail author
  • Alexandra V. Maksimovich
  • Joulia L. Meshalkina
  • Jetse J. Stoorvogel
  • Aleksey M. Yaroslavtsev
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Geography book series (SPRINGERGEOGR)


In this study, the database of properties of urban soils was created to assess the influence of zonal features of natural factors of soils, situated in urban areas. The database contains more than 135 cities located in different natural zones all over the world from the Arctic tundra to equatorial tropics. A comparison based on two features: soil organic carbon (SOC) and water-extracted pH. A number of statistical indicators such as average value, minimum and maximum values, standard deviation, variation, correlation coefficients were calculated for each zone and feature.

The analysis of the results showed that the variation in carbon content values in urban soils is significantly higher in comparison with background soils. This fact can be explained by the influence of anthropogenic factor on the processes of organic matter reduction and accumulation in the soil. At the same time the average carbon content in urban soils in most cases is much higher than in natural soil and in general, there is a trend: the difference between SOC in urban and natural soils increases to the north and gradually decreases to the south. However, a comparative analysis of soil-bioclimatic zones neither in climatic nor in facial series there is no trend can be observed. This means that the characteristics of the SOC of urban soils are not zonal and the observed trend can be explained by the intensity of human impact. The comparison of the average values of pH in the urban and natural has not shown any statistically significant difference. However the comparison of maximum values of water-extracted pH for the groups showed a clear pattern in northern hemisphere: increasing of the alkalinity in the humid and semihumid areas from the one side, and acidification in the more southern arid and semi-arid areas from the other side, that may indicate the presence of zonal trend.


Transformation of soil cover Soil organic carbon pH Data base Soil-ecological regions 



This study has been performed with support by grant #14-120-14-4266-ScSh and by grant according to the Agreement № 02.A03.21.0008 of the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science, grant #ScSh-10347.2016.11 of the Leading Scientific Schools, and grant # 15-16-30007 of the Russian Science Foundation. We also thank Tatiana Prokof’eva for advice and manuscript review.


  1. 1.
    Agarkova, M.G.: Ecological and genetic characteristics of urban soils ecosystems (by the example of the Leninsky district of Moscow). Abstract of the Ph.D. thesis. Biol. Sci. 03.00.27. Moscow (1991). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexandrova, A.B.: Soil-ecological conditions of landscapes formation of Kazan. Abstract of the Ph.D. thesis. Biol. Sci. 03.00.16. Kazan (2004). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baboshkina, S.V., Puzanov, A.V.: Chemical composition of soils and plants of various anthropogenic territories, Barnaul. world Sci. Cult. Edu. 3, 14–18 (2008). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beesley, L., Dicknson, N.: Carbon and trace element mobility in an urban soil amended with green waste compost. J. Soils Sediments 10, 215–222 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Churkina, G.: Modeling the carbon cycle of urban systems. Ecol. Model. 216, 107–113 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dobrovol’skiy, G.V.: Soil degradation – a threat to global economic crisis. Age Globalization 2, 54–65 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dobrovolskiy, G.V.: The place and role of soil in the biosphere and human life. Bull. Use Prot. Nat. Res. Russ. 2, 23–27 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World. Scale 1:5 000 000 (2016).
  9. 9.
    Guitao, S., Zhenlou, C., Shiyuan, X., Ju, Z., Li, W., Chunjuan, B., Jiyan, T.: Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China. Environ. Pollut. 156, 251–260 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Godwin, C., Chen, G., Singh, K.K.: The impact of urban residential development patterns on forest carbon density: an integration of LiDAR, aerial photography and field mensuration. Landsc. Urban Plann. 136, 97–109 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gorbov, S.N.: Soil of urbolandscape of rostov-on-don, their ecological status and evaluation of pollution. Abstract of the Ph.D. thesis. Biol. Sci. 03.00.27. Rostov-on-Don (2002). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria. FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISS-CAS/JRC (2012).
  13. 13.
    Bae, J., Ryu, Y.: Land use and land cover changes explain spatial and temporal variations of the soil organic carbon stocks in a constructed urban park. Landsc. Urban Plann. 136, 57–67 (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kaye, J.P., McCulley, R.L., Burke, I.C.: Carbon fluxes, nitrogen cycling, and soil microbial communities in adjacent urban, native and agricultural ecosystems. Glob. Change Biol. 11, 575–587 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lehmann, A., Stahr, K.: Nature and significance of anthropogenic urban soils. J. Soils Sediments 7, 247–260 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lorenz, K., Kaundler, E.: Biochemical characterization of urban soil profiles from Stuttgart, Germany. Soil Biol. Biochem. 37, 1373–1385 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lorenz, K., Lal, R.: Biogeochemical C and N cycles in urban soils. Environ. Int. 35, 1–8 (2009). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Papa, S., Bartoli, G., Pellegrino, A., Fioretto, A.: Microbial activities and trace element contents in an urban soil. Environ. Monit. Asses. 165, 193–203 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pavao-Zucherman, M.A.: The nature of urban soils and their pole in ecoligical restoration in cities. Restor. Ecol. 16, 642–649 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pouyat, R., Groffman, P., Yesilonis, I., Hernandez, L.: Soil carbon pools and fluxes in urban ecosystems. Environ. Pollut. 116, 107–118 (2002). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Raciti, S.M., Groffman, P.M., Jenkins, J.C., Pouyat, R.V., Fahey, T.J., Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenasso, M.L.: Accumulation of carbon and nitrogen in residential soils with different land-use histories ecosystems 14, 287–297 (2011). Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rawlins, B.G., Vane, C.H., Kim, A.W., Tye, A.M., Kemp, S.J., Bellamy, P.H.: Methods for estimating types of soil organic carbon and their application to surveys of UK urban areas. Soil Use Manag. 24, 47–59 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rodriguesa, S., Pereiraa, M.E., Duartea, A.C., Ajmone-Marsanf, F., Davidsonc, C.M., Grčmand, H., Hossackb, I., Hursthouseb, A.S., Ljungg, K., Martinif, C., Otabbongg, E., Reinosoe, R., Ruiz-Cortése, E., Urquhartc, G.J., Vrščaj, B.: Mercury in urban soils: a comparison of local spatial variability in six European cities. Sci. Total Enviro. 368, 926–936 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rozanova, M.S., Prokof’eva, T.V., Lysak, L.V., Rakhleeva, A.A.: Soil organic matter in the Moscow state university botanical garden on the Vorob’evy hills. Eurasian Soil Sci. 49, 1013–1025 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schindelbecka, R.R., van Esa, H.M., Abawib, G.S., Wolfec, D.W., Whitlowc, T.L., Guginob, B.K., Idowua, O.J., Moebius-Clune, B.N.: Comprehensive assessment of soil quality for landscape and urban management. Landsc. Urban Plann. 88, 73–80 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stroganova, M., Miagkova, A., Prokofieva, T., Skvortsova, I.: Soils of Moscow and Urban Environment. PAIMS, Moscow (1998)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stroganova, M.N.: Urban soils: genesis. Systematics and environmental significance (by the example of Moscow). Thesis of doctor of biological sciences. Moscow (1998)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sun, Y., Ma, J., Li, C.: Content and densities of soil organic carbon in urban soil in different function districts of Kaifeng. J. Geograph. Sci. 20, 148–156 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vasenev, V.I., Prokof’eva, T.V., Makarov, O.A.: The development of approaches to assess the soil organic carbon pools in megapolises and small settlements. Eurasian Soil Sci. 6, 685–696 (2013). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Voyt’uk, E.A.: Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plants in the urban environment (on the example of Moscow). Abstract of the Ph.D. thesis. Biol. Sci. 03.02.08. Ulan-Ude (2011). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    World Atlas: Resources and Environment. I, II. Vienna: Ed.Hoelzel; IG RAS, Moscow (1998)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang, J., Pu, L., Peng, B., Gao, Z.: The impact of urban land expansion on soil quality in rapidly urbanizing regions in China: Kunshan as a case study. Environ. Geochem. Health 33, 125–135 (2011). CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irina A. Martynenko
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexandra V. Maksimovich
    • 1
  • Joulia L. Meshalkina
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jetse J. Stoorvogel
    • 3
  • Aleksey M. Yaroslavtsev
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Soil Science FacultyMoscow Lomonosov State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.LAMPRussian Timiryazev State Agrarian UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Soil Geography and Landscape GroupWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Agro-Technological InstituteRUDN UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations