Psychiatry Residency Education in Countries with Low- and Middle-Income Economies

  • César A. AlfonsoEmail author
  • Richard F. Summers
  • Ziad Kronfol
  • Xavier Jiménez
  • Rizky Aniza Winanda
  • Allan Tasman


Utilizing scarce resources creatively becomes challenging for psychiatrists in impoverished countries. Balancing academic duties with public health needs compounds economic hardship, having to face concomitant problems of low wages, personnel shortages, large-volume practices, societal stigma, and discrimination. This chapter reviews how economic disparities in most of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, combined with psychiatric workforce inequities, create resource deficiencies having to culturally adapt educational initiatives. We recommend a learning inclusive approach that incorporates meeting public health needs and highest standards of care educational models. Specific examples will be given of collaborative didactic programs that connect mentors and institutions from high-income countries with trainees and faculty in underserved areas.


Residency education Low- and middle-income countries Psychiatry education Innovative educational models 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • César A. Alfonso
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Richard F. Summers
    • 3
  • Ziad Kronfol
    • 4
  • Xavier Jiménez
    • 5
    • 6
  • Rizky Aniza Winanda
    • 7
  • Allan Tasman
    • 8
  1. 1.PsychiatryColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.National University of MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  3. 3.Psychiatry, Residency Training, Department of PsychiatryPerelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.PsychiatryWeill Cornell Medical College in QatarAr-RayyanQatar
  5. 5.Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of MedicineClevelandUSA
  6. 6.Chronic Pain Section, Section for Neurological RestorationCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  7. 7.PsychiatryCipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, University of IndonesiaJakartaIndonesia
  8. 8.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Community and Social Psychiatry, WPA Section on EducationUniversity of Louisville School of MedicineLouisvilleUSA

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