Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  • David AusternEmail author
  • Jeffrey A. Cigrang
  • Sheila A. Rauch
  • Ashley L. Evans


After someone directly experiences, witnesses, or learns about a traumatic event, he or she may begin experiencing a variety of troubling cognitive, emotional, and physical symptoms. They may have intrusions of the event (e.g., nightmares), start avoiding reminders of the event, have unpleasant thoughts and feelings in relation to the event (e.g., self-blame), and could also have unpleasant physical symptoms in relation to the event (e.g., insomnia). While these symptoms are common in the aftermath of traumas, they typically subside after several weeks without the need for intervention. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a syndrome that can develop when the natural recovery process is thwarted.


PTSD Trauma Stepped care Primary care Behavioral health Veterans Military Treatment Psychotherapy Exposure therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Austern
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jeffrey A. Cigrang
    • 3
  • Sheila A. Rauch
    • 4
  • Ashley L. Evans
    • 3
  1. 1.Veterans Affairs Maryland Healthcare System (VAMHCS)BaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.The Steven A. Cohen Military Family Clinic at NYU Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Wright State UniversityDaytonUSA
  4. 4.Emory University School of Medicine and Atlanta VA Medical CenterAtlantaUSA

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