Advertisement

Introduction: Empire of Dissent

  • Valerie Wallace
Chapter
Part of the Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series book series (CIPCSS)

Abstract

This introductory chapter explains that Scottish Presbyterian dissenters have been missing from the historiography on religion and colonialism. It suggests that when dissenters from the Secession churches, Relief Church and Free Church migrated to the settler colonies of Britain’s empire, they exported the disruptive political ideas associated with these churches. This introduction provides an overview of the Scottish politics of dissent. It introduces five Scottish migrants: Thomas Pringle, a poet in Cape Town; Thomas McCulloch, a missionary in Pictou; John Dunmore Lang, a minister in Sydney; William Lyon Mackenzie, a journalist in Toronto; and Samuel McDonald Martin, a journalist in Auckland. The introduction suggests that the values of Presbyterian dissent underpinned the politics of these reformers, who couched their political claims in the ‘covenanting idiom’, a Scottish variant of British birthright rhetoric. This introduction also provides an outline of the book. It concludes by suggesting that through studying the connections between these migrants and the reform campaigns they led, we can advance our understanding of colonial politics and the broader significance of these individuals’ careers.

References

  1. Aiton, William. 1821. A History of the Reencounter at Drumclog, and Battle of Bothwell Bridge, in the Month of June, 1679. Hamilton.Google Scholar
  2. Altermatt, U., and F. Metzger. 2005. Protestant Dominance and Confessional Politics: Switzerland and the Netherlands. In The Cambridge History of Christianity Volume 8: World Christianities c. 1815–c. 1914, ed. S. Gilley and B. Stanley, 323–332. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armitage, David. 2000. The Ideological Origins of the British Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armstrong, F.H. 1971. William Lyon Mackenzie: The Persistent Hero. Journal of Canadian Studies 6: 21–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balfour, R. Gordon. 1899. Presbyterianism in the Colonies, with Special Reference to the Principles and Influence of the Free Church of Scotland. Edinburgh: Macniven and Wallace.Google Scholar
  6. Ballantyne, Tony. 2002. Orientalism and Race: Aryanism in the British Empire. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. ———. 2009. The State, Politics and Power, 1769–1893. In The New Oxford History of New Zealand, ed. Giselle Byrnes, 99–125. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Belchem, J. 1981. Republicanism, Popular Constitutionalism and the Radical Platform in Early Nineteenth-Century England. Social History 6 (1): 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ———. 2005. Radical Language, Meaning and Identity in the Age of the Chartists. Journal of Victorian Culture 10 (1): 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benton, Lauren. 2011. Just Despots. The Cultural Construction of Imperial Constitutionalism. Law, Culture and the Humanities 9 (2): 213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Breitenbach, Esther. 2011. Scots Churches and Missions. In Scotland and the British Empire, ed. J.M. MacKenzie and T.M. Devine, 186–226. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Brims, John. 1980. The Covenanting Tradition and Scottish Radicalism in the 1790s. In Covenant, Charter and Party, ed. Terry Brotherstone. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, Callum G. 1987. The Social History of Religion in Scotland Since 1730. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, Stewart J., and Peter Nockles, eds. 2012. The Oxford Movement: Europe and the Wider World 1830–1930. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Buggey, Susan, and Gwendolyn Davies. 2003. McCulloch, Thomas. In Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 7. University of Toronto/Université Laval. http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/mcculloch_thomas_7E.html. Accessed 26 Jan 2017.
  16. Burnard, Trevor. 2014. Unpacking the Kists: The Scots in New Zealand. Journal of New Zealand Studies 17: 107–109.Google Scholar
  17. Carey, Hilary M., ed. 2008. Empires of Religion. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2011. God’s Empire: Religion and Colonialism in the British World, c.1801–1908. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Clark, J.C.D. 1994. The Language of Liberty, 1660–1832: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Cochrane, Peter. 2006. Colonial Ambition: Foundations of Australian Democracy. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Colley, Linda. 1992. Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  22. ———. 2014. Empires of Writing: Britain, America and Constitutions, 1776–1848. Law and History Review 32 (2): 237–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cowan, Edward J. 1992. From the Southern Uplands to Southern Ontario: Nineteenth-Century Emigration from the Borders. In Scottish Emigration and Scottish Society, ed. T.M. Devine. Edinburgh: John Donald.Google Scholar
  24. Curthoys, Ann. 2012a. Indigenous People and Settler Self Government. Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 13 (1).Google Scholar
  25. ———. 2012b. Taking Liberty: Towards a New Political Historiography of Settler Self-Government and Indigenous Activism. In The Atlantic World in the Antipodes: Effects and Transformations Since the Eighteenth Century, ed. Kate Fullager, 237–255. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 2016. Republicanism and Responsible Government: The Shaping of Democracy in Australia and Canada. Australian Historical Studies 47 (2): 332–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cuthbertson, B.C.U. 1982. Place Politics and the Brandy Election of 1830. Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society 41: 5–19.Google Scholar
  28. Devine, T.M. 2011. To the Ends of the Earth: Scotland’s Global Diaspora 1750–2010. Washington DC: Smithsonian Books.Google Scholar
  29. Dorsett, Shaunnagh. 2010. Sovereignty as Governance in the Early New Zealand Crown Colony Period. In Law and Politics in British Colonial Thought: Transpositions of Empire, ed. Shaunnagh Dorsett and Ian Hunter, 209–228. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dubow, Saul. 2009. How British Was the British World: The Case of South Africa. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 37 (1): 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ducharme, Michel. 2014. The Idea of Liberty in Canada During the Age of Atlantic Revolutions, 1776–1838. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Elbourne, Elizabeth. 2002. Blood Ground. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Epstein, J.A. 1990. The Constitutional Idiom: Radical Reasoning, Rhetoric and Action in Early Nineteenth-Century England. Journal of Social History 32 (3): 553–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Erskine, Caroline. 2014. The Making of Andrew Melville. In Andrew Melville (1545–1622): Writings, Reception, and Reputation, ed. Roger Mason and Steven Reid, 215–234. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Finkelstein, D. 2009. Pringle, Thomas (1789–1834). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Online edn. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/22807. Accessed 5 June 2015.
  36. Forsyth, Neil. 2004. Presbyterian Historians and the Scottish Invention of British Liberty. Records of the Scottish Church History Society 34: 91–110.Google Scholar
  37. Francis, Mark. 1992. Governors and Settlers: Images of Authority in the British Colonies, 1820–60. Basingstoke: Macmillan Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gauvreau, Michael. 2003. Covenanter Democracy: Scottish Popular Religion, Ethnicity, and the Varieties of Politico-Religious Dissent in Upper Canada, 1815–1841. Histoire Sociale/Social History 36 (71): 55–84.Google Scholar
  39. ———. 2008. Dividends of Empire: Church Establishments and Contested British Identities in the Canadas and the Maritimes, 1780–1850. In Transatlantic Subjects: Ideas, Institutions, and Social Experience in Post-Revolutionary British North America, ed. Nancy Christie, 199–250. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Gibson, Josh. 2017. The Chartists and the Constitution: Revisiting Popular Constitutionalism. Journal of British Studies 56 (1): 70–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gladwin, Michael. 2015. Anglican Clergy in Australia, 1788–1850. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer.Google Scholar
  42. Greene, Jack P. 2009. Introduction: Empire and Liberty. In Exclusionary Empire: English Liberty Overseas, 1600–1900, ed. Jack P. Greene, 1–24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gurney, P.J. 2014. The Democratic Idiom: Languages of Democracy in the Chartist Movement. Journal of Modern History 86 (3): 566–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hall, Catherine. 2000. The Rule of Difference: Gender, Class and Empire in the Making of the 1832 Reform Act. In Gendered Nations, ed. C. Hall, I. Blom, and K. Hagemann, 107–137. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. ———. 2002. Civilising Subjects. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hardwick, Joseph. 2014. An Anglican British World: the Church of England and the expansion of the settler empire, c.1790–1860. Manchester: Manchester University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harper, Marjorie. 2003. Adventurers and Exiles: The Great Scottish Exodus. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
  48. Holloway, Ian. 1998. A Fragment on Reception. Australian Journal of Legal History 79: 79–91.Google Scholar
  49. Holmes, Andrew R. 2009. Presbyterian Religion, Historiography, and Ulster Scots Identity, c.1800 to 1914. Historical Journal 52 (3): 615–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Isabella, Maurizio. 2015. Citizens or Faithful? Religion and the Liberal Revolutions of the 1820s in Southern Europe. Modern Intellectual History. April 12: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones, Benjamin T. 2009. Colonial Republicanism: Re-examining the Impact of Civic Republican Ideology in Pre-Constitution New South Wales. Journal of Australian Colonial History 11: 129–146.Google Scholar
  52. ———. 2014. Republicanism and Responsible Government: The Shaping of Democracy in Australia and Canada. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Jones, Benjamin T., and P. Pickering. 2014. A New Terror to Death: Public Memory and the Disappearance of John Dunmore Lang. History Australia 11 (2): 125–145.Google Scholar
  54. Kidd, Colin. 1993. Subverting Scotland’s Past: Scottish whig historians and the creation of an Anglo-British identity, 1689–c.1830. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. ———. 2002. Conditional Britons: The Scots Covenanting Tradition and the Eighteenth-Century British State. English Historical Review 117 (474): 1145–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laidlaw, Zoë. 2004. ‘Aunt Anna’s Report’: The Buxton Women and the Aborigines Select Committee. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 32 (2): 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. ———. 2005. Colonial Connections. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Landsman, Ned. 2011. The Episcopate, the British Union, and the Failure of Religious Settlement in Colonial British America. In The First Prejudice: Religious Tolerance and Intolerance in Early America, ed. Chris Beneke and Christopher S. Grenda, 75–97. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  59. Lenihan, Rebecca. 2015. From Alba to Aotearoa: Profiling New Zealand’s Scots migrants 1840–1920. Dunedin: Otago University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Lester, Alan. 2002. British Settler Discourse and the Circuits of Empire. History Workshop Journal 52 (1): 24–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. M’Carter, John. 1869. The Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa with notices of the other denominations: An historical sketch. Edinburgh: W. & C. Inglis.Google Scholar
  62. Macdonald, Catriona M.M. 2002. ‘Their Laurel Wither’d, and Their Name Forgot’: Women and the Scottish Radical Tradition. In Scottish History: The Power of the Past, ed. E.J. Cowan and R.J. Finlay, 225–252. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Macfarlane, John. 1862. The Life and Times of George Lawson D.D. Edinburgh: William Oliphant and Co.Google Scholar
  64. MacKenzie, John M. 2017. Presbyterianism and Scottish Identity in Global Context. Britain and the World 10 (1): 88–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. MacKenzie, John M., with Nigel R. Dalziel. 2007. The Scots in South Africa: Ethnicity, Identity, Gender and Race, 1772–1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Mason, Roger A. 1987. Scotching the Brut: Politics, History and National Myth in Sixteenth-Century Britain. In Scotland and England 1286–1815, ed. Roger A. Mason, 60–84. Edinburgh: John Donald.Google Scholar
  67. McBride, I. 1998. Scripture Politics: Ulster Presbyterians and Irish Radicalism in Late Eighteenth-Century Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. McHugh, P.G. 1995. The Historiography of New Zealand’s Constitutional History. In Essays on the Constitution, ed. P.A. Joseph, 344–365. Wellington: Brooker’s.Google Scholar
  69. McKenna, Mark. 1996. The Captive Republic: a History of Republicanism in Australia 1788–1996. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. ———. 2012. Transplanted to Savage Shores: Indigenous Australians and British Birthright in the Mid Nineteenth-Century Australian Colonies. Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 13 (1).Google Scholar
  71. McKenzie, Kirsten. 1998/1999. ‘Franklins of the Cape’: The South African Commercial Advertiser and the Creation of a Colonial Public Sphere, 1824–1854. Kronos 25: 88–102.Google Scholar
  72. McKerrow, John. 1841. History of the Secession Church, Revised and Enlarged ed. Glasgow: A. Fullerton.Google Scholar
  73. ———. 1867. History of the Foreign Missions of the Secession and United Secession Church. Edinburgh: Elliot.Google Scholar
  74. McLaren, J. 2010. The Uses of the Rule of Law in British Colonial Societies in the Nineteenth Century. In Law and Politics in British Colonial Thought: Transpositions of Empire, ed. Shaunnagh Dorsett and Ian Hunter, 71–90. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McPherson, B.H. 1995. Scots Law in the Colonies. Juridical Review: The Law Journal of Scottish Universities pt.1, 191–207.Google Scholar
  76. Miller, David. W. 2007. Queen’s Rebels: Ulster Loyalism in Historic Perspective, revised ed. Dublin. University College Dublin Press.Google Scholar
  77. Mitchell, Jessie. 2009. ‘Are We in Danger from a Hostile Visit from the Aborigines?’ Dispossession and the Rise of Self-Government in New South Wales. Australian Historical Studies 40 (3): 294–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moore, Joseph S. 2015. Founding Sins: How a Group of Antislavery Radicals Fought to put Christ into the Constitution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Murray, D.M. 1992. Martyrs or Madmen? The Covenanters, Sir Walter Scott and Dr Thomas McCrie. Innes Review 43: 166–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pentland, Gordon. 2005. Scotland and the Creation of a National Reform Movement, 1830–32. Historical Journal 48 (4): 999–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pickering, Paul. 2001. ‘The Oak of English Liberty’: Popular Constitutionalism in New South Wales, 1848–1856. Journal of Australian Colonial History 3 (1): 1–27.Google Scholar
  82. Pickering, P.A. 2007. Was the “Southern Tree of Liberty” an Oak? Labour History 92: 139–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pickles, Katie. 2011. The Obvious and the Awkward: Postcolonialism and the British World. New Zealand Journal of History 45 (1): 85–101.Google Scholar
  84. Pietsch, Tamson. 2013. Rethinking the British World. Journal of British Studies 52 (2): 441–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Porter, Andrew. 2004. Religion Versus Empire? British Protestant Missionaries and Overseas Expansion, 1700–1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Reid, John Phillip. 1986. Constitutional History of the American Revolution: The Authority of Rights. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  87. Rodger, Alan. 2008. The Courts, the Church and the Constitution: Aspects of the Disruption of 1843. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Roe, Michael. 1967. Lillie, John (1806–1866). Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, Published First in Hardcopy 1967. http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/lillie-john-2360/text3091. Accessed 23 June 2017.
  89. Rutz, Michael. 2006. The Problems of Church and State: Dissenting Politics and the London Missionary Society in 1830s Britain. Journal of Church and State 48 (2): 379–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. ———. 2008. ‘Meddling with Politics’: The Political Role of Foreign Missions in the Early Nineteenth Century. Parliamentary History 27 (1): 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Saunders, Christopher. 2009. The Expansion of British Liberties: The South African Case. In Exclusionary Empire, ed. Jack P. Greene, 269–288. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Scobie, C.H.H., and G.A. Rawlyk, eds. 1977. The Contribution of Presbyterianism to the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Simpson, K.A. 1990. “Martin, Samuel McDonald.” First published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol. 1, 1990. Te Ara—the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/1m20/martin-samuel-mcdonald. Accessed 2 Aug 2017.
  94. Stagg, Ronald J. 1976. The Yonge Street Rebellion of 1837: An Examination of the Social Background and a Re-Assessment of the Events. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  95. Stephen, Jeffrey. 2007. Scottish Presbyterians and the Act of Union. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Strong, Rowan. 2007. Anglicanism and the British Empire 1700–1850. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Taylor, Miles. 2003. Empire and Parliamentary Reform: The 1832 Act Revisited. In Rethinking the Age of Reform: Britain 1780–1850, ed. Arthur Burns and Joanna Innes, 295–311. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. ———. 2007. Joseph Hume and the Reformation of India, 1819–1833. In English Radicalism, 1550–1850, ed. Glenn Burgess and Matthew Festenstein, 285–308. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  99. The Church of Scotland. 1842. The Church of Scotland’s Claim of Right. Edinburgh: John Johnston.Google Scholar
  100. Vance, Michael E. 2012. Imperial Immigrants: Scottish Settlers in the Upper Ottawa Valley, 1815–1840. Toronto: Dundurn Press.Google Scholar
  101. Vaudry, R.W. 2003. Anglicans and the Atlantic World: High Churchmen, Evangelicals and the Quebec Connection. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Wallace, Valerie. 2009. Exporting Radicalism Within the Empire: Scots Presbyterian Political Values in Scotland and British North America. Ph.D. thesis, University of Glasgow.Google Scholar
  103. Wallace, Simon. 2011. Strange Days Indeed: The Confused Politics of Conflict in Upper Canada’s 1830s. M.A. thesis, Trent University.Google Scholar
  104. Wallace, Valerie. 2014a. Fictions of History, Evangelical Whiggism, and the Debate over Old Mortality in Scotland and Nova Scotia. In Historical Writing in Britain, 1688–1830: Visions of History, ed. Benjamin Dew and Fiona Price, 182–199. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  105. ———. 2014b. ‘Preaching Disaffection’ in the Presbyterian Atlantic: Jotham Blanchard and the Reform Crisis in Scotland and Nova Scotia, c.1827–1837. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 42 (2): 377–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ward, Damen. 2005. Colonial Communication: Creating Settler Public Opinion in Crown Colony South Australia and New Zealand. In Imperial Communication: Australia, Britain, and the British Empire c. 1830–50, ed. Simon J. Potter, 7–46. London: Menzies Centre for Australian Studies.Google Scholar
  107. ———. 2008. Civil Jurisdiction, Settler Politics, and the Colonial Constitution, Circa 1840–58. Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 39 (3): 497–532.Google Scholar
  108. Wilton, Carol. 2000. Popular Politics and Political Culture in Upper Canada 1800–1850. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Woollacott, Angela. 2015. Settler Society in the Australian Colonies: Self-Government and Imperial Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valerie Wallace
    • 1
  1. 1.School of History, Philosophy, Political Science and International RelationsVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations