Advertisement

Washback Activity: At the Macro Level

  • Dawn Karen Booth
Chapter
Part of the English Language Education book series (ELED, volume 12)

Abstract

Individual test motive and test stakes are important considerations in constructing a model of washback, but beyond learners and teachers are a wide range of interrelated stakeholders in the testing community that equally, if not more powerfully influence test stakes. Accordingly, this chapter argues that washback cannot really be substantiated without full consideration of a test’s influence within wider society, and that a more comprehensive view of washback is one that also considers stakeholders at the macro level. Drawing on contributions from academics, news reports and editorials in Korea and Japan, and comments from students represented in this book, this chapter profiles the large scale impact and stakes of the TOEIC in the business and university sectors. Then, guided by Engestrom’s (Perspectives on activity theory. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 19–38, 1999) schematic of Activity Theory, it further explores how different communities may affect (and may be affected by) the TOEIC to form a complex network of interrelated stakeholder interests. In all, this chapter calls for an expanded view of washback that accounts for the wider historical, economical, and sociocultural context in which a test is situated.

Keywords

Washback Consequences Macro level Impact Korea Japan Stakeholders Test stakes Activity theory Business University Engestrom Learning English tests TOEIC EFL Sociocultural Stakeholders Testing community 

References

  1. Akiyama, T. (2004). Introducing speaking tests into a Japanese senior high school entrance Examination. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, H. (2005). Learner perceptions of TOEIC test results and language skill improvements: I don’t want to study English, I want to study TOEIC. Paper presented at JALT. Retrieved from http://www.geocities.com/chosunaosan/Paper.htm?200823
  3. Chapman, M., & Newfields, T. (2008). The ‘new’ TOEIC. Jalt Testing and Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 12, 32–37.Google Scholar
  4. Choi, I. C. (2008). The impact of EFL testing on EFL education in Korea. Language Testing, 25(1), 39–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cunningham, C. (2002). The TOEIC ® test and communicative competence: Do test score gains correlate with increased competence? Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Birmingham. England.Google Scholar
  6. Educational Testing Services. (2008). TOEIC for the workplace. Retrieved June 14, from, http://www.ets.org/toeic/succeed
  7. Engeström, Y. (1999). Activity theory and individual and social transformation. In Y. Engeström, R. Miettinen, & R.-M. Punamáki (Eds.), Perspectives on activity theory (pp. 19–38). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Funagi, H. (2000). TOEIC Buumu no shinjitsu (The truth about the TOEIC boom). Executive, (August), 42–46.Google Scholar
  9. Guilloteaux, M. (2007). Motivating language learners. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Nottingham.Google Scholar
  10. Ikeda, M. (2005, March). Untitled presentation. Paper presented at the TOEIC Training Seminar sponsored by the TOEIC kenkyuu-kai.Google Scholar
  11. In’nami, Y., & Koizumi, R. (2012). Factor structure of the revised TOEIC test: A multiple- sample analysis. Language Testing, 29(1), 131–152. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532211413444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iwabe, K. (2005, March). Untitled presentation. Paper presented at the TOEIC Training Seminar sponsored by IIBC.Google Scholar
  13. Kane, M. (2013). Validating the interpretations and uses of test scores. Journal of Educational Measurement, 50(1), 1–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kenji, I. (2002). TOEIC dewa hakarenai. Kigyo ga motomeru ‘bijinesu jissen eigo’ no youtei [What TOEIC cannot measure: The practical business English that companies demand]. Sapio, 13, 92–94.Google Scholar
  15. Kim, T. (2009). The sociocultural interface between ideal self and ought-to self: A case study of two Korean students’ ESL motivation. In Z. Dornyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 274–294). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  16. Kim, T. (2010, April). Korea’s TOEIC killer debut. The Korean Times. Retrieved from http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/biz/2010/04/123_64757.html
  17. Kim, S. (2016, May 31). TOEIC takers fall prey to fee rise. The Korea Times. Retrieved from http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2016/04/116_201612.html
  18. Kinomoto, K. (2000). Eigo de shuusei ga kimaru. (Promotion decided by English ability). Shukan Asahi, 10, 27–29.Google Scholar
  19. Knapman, G. (2008). The TOEIC: Critical Review. Fukuikogyodai Journal, 38, 85–94.Google Scholar
  20. Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Lee, E. (2005). A study of TOEIC results and college recruiting policy. English Language and Literature Teaching, 8(2), 55–70.Google Scholar
  22. Legge, J. (1960). The Chinese classics in five volumes. Volume 1: Confucian analects, the great learning, the doctrine of the mean (3rd ed.). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Liao, C., Qu, Y., & Morgan, R. (2010). The relationships of test scores measured by the TOEIC listening and reading test and TOEIC speaking and writing tests (ETS Research Report No. TC-10-13). Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  24. McCrostie, J. (2009, August 11). TOEIC no turkey at 30: Once-struggling test flying high in Japan as corporate partners take on larger role. The Japanese Times. Retrieved from http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/fl20090811zg.html
  25. McNamara, T. (2008). The social-political and power dimensions of tests. In E. Shohamy & N. H. Horberger (Eds.), Language testing and assessment. Volume 7 of encyclopaedia of language and education (2nd ed., pp. 415–427). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Miller, K. (2003). The pitfalls of implementing TOEIC preparation courses. Retrieved from http://www2.shikoku-u.ac.jp/english-dept/pitfalls.html
  27. Moritoshi, P. (2001). The Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC): Necessity, proficiency levels, test score utilisation and accuracy. Retrieved from http://www.cels.bham.ac.uk/resources/Essays.htm
  28. Murai, S. (2016, January 25). Changes in store for the TOEIC, but test still not total gauge of fluency: Experts. The Japan Times. Retrieved from https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/01/25/reference/changes-store-toeic-teststill-not-total-gauge-fluency-experts/#.Wn6Ki-hubIU
  29. Newfields, T. (2005). TOEIC ® washback effects on teachers: A pilot study at one university faculty. Toyo University Keizai Ronshu. Retrieved from http://www.tnewfields.info/Articles/washback.htm
  30. Rebuck, M. (2003). The use of TOEIC by companies in Japan. NUCB JLCC, 5(1), 23–32.Google Scholar
  31. Saville, N., & Hawkey, R. (2004). The IELTS impact study: Investigating washback on teaching materials. In L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe, & A. Curtis (Eds.), Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (pp. 73–96). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  32. Seth, M. J. (2005). Korean education: A philosophical and historical perspective. In Y. K. Kim-Renaud, R. Grinker, & K. W. Larsen (Eds.), Korean education (Vol. 24). Washington, DC: The George Washington University.Google Scholar
  33. Stoynoff, S. (2009). Recent developments in language assessment and the case of four large-scale tests of ESOL ability. Language Teaching, 42. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480805399.
  34. Weir, C. J. (1990). Communicative language testing. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dawn Karen Booth
    • 1
  1. 1.AucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations