Advertisement

Side Effects of Medical Cancer Therapy in Genitourinary Malignancies

  • Bertrand F. Tombal
  • Christine Remacle
  • Monique Kasa Vubu
Chapter

Abstract

Genitourinary cancers represent 12.8% of cancer in both sexes and 21.5% in men, accounting for 7% of cancer deaths in both sexes and 10.5% in men. The systemic treatment of prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma does not rely on chemotherapy, with the exception of taxane docetaxel and cabazitaxel. Prostate cancer is primarily treated by androgen deprivation, by surgical castration or LHRH analogs, or by androgen receptor pathway inhibitor enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate. Renal cell carcinoma is nowadays treated with agents targeting survival and angiogenesis pathways, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sorafenib, sunitinib, axitinib, and pazopanib; anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody bevacizumab; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors temsirolimus and everolimus; and oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinases MET, VEGFR, AXL, cabozantinib. Most recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have made their way to genitourinary cancers, revolutionizing the treatment of urothelial cancers and renal cell carcinoma.

Hormone therapies and targeted therapies don’t eradicate prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma but rather switch them to a more chronic state. This means that these treatments are prescribed chronically for an extended period of time. In such conditions, even the least bothersome side effect may profoundly alter the quality of life of patients. Ultimately, this is a threat to compliance and then to the efficacy of these treatments. In addition, many of the side effects of these drugs often overlap with common chronic illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, heart failure, and osteoporosis. An exhaustive knowledge of these side effects, proper monitoring, and in-depth education of patients are key elements to secure the efficacy of these treatments.

Keywords

Prostate cancer Renal cell carcinoma Androgen deprivation therapy Tyrosine kinase inhibitors mTOR inhibitors Side effects 

References

  1. 1.
    Ferlay J et al.. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase, Lyon. International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. http://globocan.iarc.fr/. Accessed 1 July 2017.
  2. 2.
    Wolff RF, et al. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials of radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2015;51:2345–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2015.07.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gillessen S, et al. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: the report of the advanced prostate cancer consensus conference APCCC 2017. Eur Urol. 2017;17:30497–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2017.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tannock IF, et al. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1502–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beer TM, et al. Enzalutamide in men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: extended analysis of the phase 3 PREVAIL study. Eur Urol. 2017;71:151–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2016.07.032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fizazi K, et al. Abiraterone plus prednisone in metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(4):352–60.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1704174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    James ND, et al. Abiraterone for prostate cancer not previously treated with hormone therapy. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:338–51.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1702900.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    James ND, et al. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016;387:1163–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01037-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sweeney CJ, et al. Chemohormonal therapy in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:737–46.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1503747.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huggins C, Hodges C. Studies on prostate cancer. I. The effect of castration, of oestrogen and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Res. 1941;1:293.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cornford P, et al. EAU-ESTRO-SIOG guidelines on prostate cancer. Part II: treatment of relapsing, metastatic, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2017;71:630–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2016.08.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gomella LG. Contemporary use of hormonal therapy in prostate cancer: managing complications and addressing quality-of-life issues. BJU Int. 2007;99(Suppl 1):25–9. discussion 30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holzbeierlein JM. Managing complications of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 2006;33:181–190, vi.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nguyen PL, et al. Adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy and strategies to mitigate them. Eur Urol. 2014;67(5):825–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.07.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moyad MA. Promoting general health during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT): a rapid 10-step review for your patients. Urol Oncol. 2005;23:56–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mottet N, Prayer-Galetti T, Hammerer P, Kattan MW, Tunn U. Optimizing outcomes and quality of life in the hormonal treatment of prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2006;98:20–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moyad MA, Merrick GS. Statins and cholesterol lowering after a cancer diagnosis: why not? Urol Oncol. 2005;23:49–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barton D, et al. A phase III trial evaluating three doses of citalopram for hot flashes: NCCTG trial N05C9. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:A9538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Loprinzi CL, et al. Transdermal clonidine for ameliorating post-orchiectomy hot flashes. J Urol. 1994;151:634–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Loprinzi CL, et al. Gabapentin for hot flashes in men: NCCTG trial N00CB. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:A9005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spetz Holm AC, Frisk J, Hammar ML. Acupuncture as treatment of hot flashes and the possible role of calcitonin gene-related peptide. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:579321.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/579321.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vandecasteele K, Ost P, Oosterlinck W, Fonteyne V, Neve WD, Meerleer GD. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of salvia Officinalis in controlling hot flashes in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation. Phytother Res. 2012;26:208–13.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3528.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Potosky AL, et al. Quality of life following localized prostate cancer treated initially with androgen deprivation therapy or no therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:430–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aucoin MW, Wassersug RJ. The sexuality and social performance of androgen-deprived (castrated) men throughout history: implications for modern day cancer patients. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:3162–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Walker LM, Hampton AJ, Wassersug RJ, Thomas BC, Robinson JW. Androgen deprivation therapy and maintenance of intimacy: a randomized controlled pilot study of an educational intervention for patients and their partners. Contemp Clin Trials. 2013;34:227–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2012.11.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bourke L, et al. Exercise for men with prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2016;69:693–703.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.10.047.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, et al. Main outcomes of the FRESH START trial: a sequentially tailored, diet and exercise mailed print intervention among breast and prostate cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:2709–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Higano CS. Side effects of androgen deprivation therapy: monitoring and minimizing toxicity. Urology. 2003;61:32–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fang F, Keating NL, Mucci LA, Adami HO, Stampfer MJ, Valdimarsdottir U, Fall K. Immediate risk of suicide and cardiovascular death after a prostate cancer diagnosis: cohort study in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:307–14.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djp537.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dinh KT, et al. Association of androgen deprivation therapy with depression in localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:1905–12.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.64.1969.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hinz A, Mehnert A, Kocalevent RD, Brahler E, Forkmann T, Singer S, Schulte T. Assessment of depression severity with the PHQ-9 in cancer patients and in the general population. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:22.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-0728-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wu LM, Tanenbaum ML, Dijkers MP, Amidi A, Hall SJ, Penedo FJ, Diefenbach MA. Cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy or observation: a mixed methods study. Soc Sci Med. 2016;156:80–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.03.016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nead KT, Sinha S, Nguyen PL. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and dementia risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2017;20(3):259–64.  https://doi.org/10.1038/pcan.2017.10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jhan JH, Yang YH, Chang YH, Guu SJ, Tsai CC. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a nationwide 4-year longitudinal cohort study. Aging Male. 2017;20:33–8.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13685538.2016.1271782.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Strum SB, McDermed JE, Scholz MC, Johnson H, Tisman G. Anaemia associated with androgen deprivation in patients with prostate cancer receiving combined hormone blockade. Br J Urol. 1997;79:933–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nanda A, Chen MH, Braccioforte MH, Moran BJ, D’Amico AV. Hormonal therapy use for prostate cancer and mortality in men with coronary artery disease-induced congestive heart failure or myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2009;302:866–73.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Albertsen PC, Klotz L, Tombal B, Grady J, Olesen TK, Nilsson J. Cardiovascular morbidity associated with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists and an antagonist. Eur Urol. 2014;65:565–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2013.10.032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tivesten A, Pinthus JH, Clarke N, Duivenvoorden W, Nilsson J. Cardiovascular risk with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: potential mechanisms. Urol Oncol. 2015;33:464–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.05.030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Scailteux LM, et al. Androgen deprivation therapy and cardiovascular risk: no meaningful difference between GnRH antagonist and agonists-a nationwide population-based cohort study based on 2010-2013 French health insurance data. Eur J Cancer. 2017;77:99–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2017.03.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Galvao DA, et al. Changes in muscle, fat and bone mass after 36 weeks of maximal androgen blockade for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2008;102:44–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Galvao DA, Taaffe DR, Spry N, Joseph D, Turner D, Newton RU. Reduced muscle strength and functional performance in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen suppression: a comprehensive cross-sectional investigation. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;12:198–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Braga-Basaria M, Dobs AS, Muller DC, Carducci MA, John M, Egan J, Basaria S. Metabolic syndrome in men with prostate cancer undergoing long-term androgen-deprivation therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3979–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smith MR, Lee H, McGovern F, Fallon MA, Goode M, Zietman AL, Finkelstein JS. Metabolic changes during gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy for prostate cancer: differences from the classic metabolic syndrome. Cancer. 2008;112:2188–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smith MR, Lee H, Nathan DM. Insulin sensitivity during combined androgen blockade for prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:1305–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Keating NL, O’Malley AJ, Freedland SJ, Smith MR. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease during androgen deprivation therapy: observational study of veterans with prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:39–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bosco C, Bosnyak Z, Malmberg A, Adolfsson J, Keating NL, Van Hemelrijck M. Quantifying observational evidence for risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease following androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2015;68:386–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.11.039.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nguyen PL, et al. Association of androgen deprivation therapy with cardiovascular death in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. JAMA. 2011;306:2359–66.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.1745.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Levine GN, et al. Androgen-deprivation therapy in prostate cancer and cardiovascular risk: a science advisory from the American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, and American Urological Association: endorsed by the American Society for Radiation Oncology. Circulation. 2010;121:833–40.  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192695.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: update to ongoing safety review of GnRH agonists and notification to manufacturers of GnRH agonists to add new safety information to labeling regarding increased risk of diabetes and certain cardiovascular diseases. 2010. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm229986.htm.
  50. 50.
    Schow DA, Renfer LG, Rozanski TA, Thompson IM. Prevalence of hot flushes during and after neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for localized prostate cancer. South Med J. 1998;91:855–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nobes JP, Langley SE, Klopper T, Russell-Jones D, Laing RW. A prospective, randomized pilot study evaluating the effects of metformin and lifestyle intervention on patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy. BJU Int. 2011;109(10):1495–502.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10555.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Galvao DA, et al. Resistance training and reduction of treatment side effects in prostate cancer patients. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:2045–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Segal RJ, et al. Resistance exercise in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:1653–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Segal RJ, et al. Randomized controlled trial of resistance or aerobic exercise in men receiving radiation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:344–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Baumann FT, Zopf EM, Bloch W. Clinical exercise interventions in prostate cancer patients--a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:221–33.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-011-1271-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Eriksson S, Eriksson A, Stege R, Carlstrom K. Bone mineral density in patients with prostatic cancer treated with orchidectomy and with estrogens. Calcif Tissue Int. 1995;57:97–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fink HA, Ewing SK, Ensrud KE, Barrett-Connor E, Taylor BC, Cauley JA, Orwoll ES. Association of testosterone and estradiol deficiency with osteoporosis and rapid bone loss in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:3908–15.  https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-0173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Murphy S, Khaw KT, Cassidy A, Compston JE. Sex hormones and bone mineral density in elderly men. Bone Miner. 1993;20:133–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Szulc P, Delmas PD. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in men. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001;69:229–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Maillefert JF, Sibilia J, Michel F, Saussine C, Javier RM, Tavernier C. Bone mineral density in men treated with synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prostatic carcinoma. J Urol. 1999;161:1219–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Daniell HW. Osteoporosis after orchiectomy for prostate cancer [see comments]. J Urol. 1997;157:439–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Daniell HW, Dunn SR, Ferguson DW, Lomas G, Niazi Z, Stratte PT. Progressive osteoporosis during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2000;163:181–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Higano C, Shields A, Wood N, Brown J, Tangen C. Bone mineral density in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases treated with intermittent androgen suppression. Urology. 2004;64:1182–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mittan D, Lee S, Miller E, Perez RC, Basler JW, Bruder JM. Bone loss following hypogonadism in men with prostate cancer treated with GnRH analogs. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:3656–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shahinian VB, Kuo YF, Freeman JL, Goodwin JS. Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:154–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Smith MR, Lee WC, Brandman J, Wang Q, Botteman M, Pashos CL. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and fracture risk: a claims-based cohort study of men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:7897–903.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Alibhai SM, Duong-Hua M, Cheung AM, Sutradhar R, Warde P, Fleshner NE, Paszat L. Fracture types and risk factors in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy: a matched cohort study of 19,079 men. J Urol. 2010;184(3):918–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.04.068.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Oefelein MG, Ricchuiti V, Conrad W, Seftel A, Bodner D, Goldman H, Resnick M. Skeletal fracture associated with androgen suppression induced osteoporosis: the clinical incidence and risk factors for patients with prostate cancer. J Urol. 2001;166:1724–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lenchik L, Kiebzak GM, Blunt BA. What is the role of serial bone mineral density measurements in patient management? J Clin Densitom. 2002;5(Suppl):S29–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ebeling PR. Clinical practice. Osteoporosis in men. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1474–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cummings SR, et al. Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet. 1993;341:72–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tinetti ME. Clinical practice. Preventing falls in elderly persons. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:42–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tang BM, Eslick GD, Nowson C, Smith C, Bensoussan A. Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370:657–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Benton MJ, White A. Osteoporosis: recommendations for resistance exercise and supplementation with calcium and vitamin D to promote bone health. J Community Health Nurs. 2006;23:201–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Network NCC. Prostate cancer. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate.pdf (2017). Accessed 21 Feb 2017.
  76. 76.
    Smith MR, et al. Pamidronate to prevent bone loss during androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:948–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Smith MR, Eastham J, Gleason DM, Shasha D, Tchekmedyian S, Zinner N. Randomized controlled trial of zoledronic acid to prevent bone loss in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. J Urol. 2003;169:2008–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Michaelson MD, et al. Randomized controlled trial of annual zoledronic acid to prevent gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:1038–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Greenspan SL, Nelson JB, Trump DL, Resnick NM. Effect of once-weekly oral alendronate on bone loss in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:416–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bekker PJ, et al. A single-dose placebo-controlled study of AMG 162, a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1059–66.  https://doi.org/10.1359/JBMR.040305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Smith MR, et al. Denosumab in men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:745–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    de Bono JS, et al. Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1995–2005.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1014618.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ryan CJ, et al. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (COU-AA-302): final overall survival analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(2):152–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71205-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Attard G, et al. Clinical and biochemical consequences of CYP17A1 inhibition with abiraterone given with and without exogenous glucocorticoids in castrate men with advanced prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:507–16.  https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-2189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ryan CJ, et al. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:138–48.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1209096.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Agency EM. Summary of the European public assessment report (EPAR) for Zytiga. 2015. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Summary_for_the_public/human/002321/WC500112861.pdf. Accessed 20 Jan 2015.
  87. 87.
    Tran C, et al. Development of a second-generation antiandrogen for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Science. 2009;324:787–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Beer TM, et al. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:424–33.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1405095.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Scher HI, et al. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1187–97.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1207506.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Chowdhury S, et al. Fatigue in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with enzalutamide: data from randomised clinical trials. Ann Oncol. 2016;27:739P.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Agency EM. Summary of the European public assessment report (EPAR) for Xtandi. 2015. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Summary_for_the_public/human/002639/WC500144999.pdf. Accessed 20 Jan 2015.
  92. 92.
    Choueiri TK, et al. Cabozantinib versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1814–23.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1510016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Choueiri TK, et al. Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (METEOR): final results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17:917–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30107-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Escudier B, et al. Sorafenib in advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:125–34.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa060655.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Escudier B, et al. Sorafenib for treatment of renal cell carcinoma: final efficacy and safety results of the phase III treatment approaches in renal cancer global evaluation trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:3312–8.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.19.5511.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Escudier B, et al. Bevacizumab plus interferon alfa-2a for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a randomised, double-blind phase III trial. Lancet. 2007;370:2103–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61904-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Escudier B, et al. Randomized phase II trial of first-line treatment with sorafenib versus interferon Alfa-2a in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1280–9.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.19.3342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Giannarini G, Petralia G, Thoeny HC. Potential and limitations of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in kidney, prostate, and bladder cancer including pelvic lymph node staging: a critical analysis of the literature. Eur Urol. 2011;61(2):326–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2011.09.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hudes G, et al. Temsirolimus, interferon alfa, or both for advanced renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2271–81.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa066838.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Motzer RJ, et al. Efficacy of everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Lancet. 2008;372:449–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61039-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Motzer RJ, et al. Axitinib versus sorafenib as second-line treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma: overall survival analysis and updated results from a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14:552–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70093-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Motzer RJ, et al. Overall survival and updated results for sunitinib compared with interferon alfa in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:3584–90.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.20.1293.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Motzer RJ, et al. Sunitinib versus interferon alfa in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:115–24.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa065044.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rini BI, et al. Comparative effectiveness of axitinib versus sorafenib in advanced renal cell carcinoma (AXIS): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011;378:1931–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61613-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rini BI, et al. Bevacizumab plus interferon alfa compared with interferon alfa monotherapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: CALGB 90206. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:5422–8.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.16.9847.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sternberg CN, et al. Pazopanib in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results of a randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1061–8.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.23.9764.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Fyfe G, Fisher RI, Rosenberg SA, Sznol M, Parkinson DR, Louie AC. Results of treatment of 255 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who received high-dose recombinant interleukin-2 therapy. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13:688–96.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.1995.13.3.688.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Escudier B, et al. Phase III trial of bevacizumab plus interferon alfa-2a in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (AVOREN): final analysis of overall survival. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:2144–50.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.26.7849.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Eisen T, et al. Targeted therapies for renal cell carcinoma: review of adverse event management strategies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104:93–113.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djr511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lacouture ME, et al. Evolving strategies for the management of hand-foot skin reaction associated with the multitargeted kinase inhibitors sorafenib and sunitinib. Oncologist. 2008;13:1001–11.  https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2008-0131.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Negrier S, Ravaud A. Optimisation of sunitinib therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: adverse-event management. Eur J Cancer Suppl. 2007;5(7):12–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Benson AB, et al. Recommended guidelines for the treatment of cancer treatment-induced diarrhea. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2918–26.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.04.132.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Eden OB. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;4:CD000978.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000978.pub3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bjordal JM, Bensadoun RJ, Tuner J, Frigo L, Gjerde K, Lopes-Martins RA. A systematic review with meta-analysis of the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis. Support Care Cancer. 2011;19:1069–77.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-011-1202-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Loprinzi CL, et al. Controlled trial of megestrol acetate for the treatment of cancer anorexia and cachexia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82:1127–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fearon KC, Barber MD, Moses AG, Ahmedzai SH, Taylor GS, Tisdale MJ, Murray GD. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of eicosapentaenoic acid diester in patients with cancer cachexia. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3401–7.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.04.5724.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Madeddu C, Maccio A, Panzone F, Tanca FM, Mantovani G. Medroxyprogesterone acetate in the management of cancer cachexia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10:1359–66.  https://doi.org/10.1517/14656560902960162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Berk L, James J, Schwartz A, Hug E, Mahadevan A, Samuels M, Kachnic L. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a beta-hydroxyl beta-methyl butyrate, glutamine, and arginine mixture for the treatment of cancer cachexia (RTOG 0122). Support Care Cancer. 2008;16:1179–88.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-008-0403-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hapani S, Chu D, Wu S. Risk of gastrointestinal perforation in patients with cancer treated with bevacizumab: a meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:559–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70112-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Network. NCC NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: cancer-related fatigue. http://www.nccn.org/. Accessed 17 Feb 2010.
  121. 121.
    Turner JS, Cheung EM, George J, Quinn DI. Pain management, supportive and palliative care in patients with renal cell carcinoma. BJU Int. 2007;99:1305–12.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2007.06829.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wolter P, Stefan C, Decallonne B, Dumez H, Bex M, Carmeliet P, Schoffski P. The clinical implications of sunitinib-induced hypothyroidism: a prospective evaluation. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:448–54.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6604497.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bamias A, Lainakis G, Manios E, Koroboki E, Gyftaki R, Zakopoulos N, Dimopoulos MA. Diagnosis and management of hypertension in advanced renal cell carcinoma: prospective evaluation of an algorithm in patients treated with sunitinib. J Chemother. 2009;21:347–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bamias A, Lainakis G, Manios E, Koroboki E, Karadimou A, Zakopoulos N, Dimopoulos MA. Could rigorous diagnosis and management of hypertension reduce cardiac events in patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors? J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:2567–9.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.21.6028. author reply 2569–2570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Altena R, Perik PJ, van Veldhuisen DJ, de Vries EG, Gietema JA. Cardiovascular toxicity caused by cancer treatment: strategies for early detection. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:391–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70042-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Force T, Kerkela R. Cardiotoxicity of the new cancer therapeutics--mechanisms of, and approaches to, the problem. Drug Discov Today. 2008;13:778–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2008.05.011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Telli ML, Witteles RM, Fisher GA, Srinivas S. Cardiotoxicity associated with the cancer therapeutic agent sunitinib malate. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:1613–8.  https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdn168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Elice F, Rodeghiero F, Falanga A, Rickles FR. Thrombosis associated with angiogenesis inhibitors. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2009;22:115–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beha.2009.01.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Zangari M, Fink LM, Elice F, Zhan F, Adcock DM, Tricot GJ. Thrombotic events in patients with cancer receiving antiangiogenesis agents. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:4865–73.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.22.3875.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nalluri SR, Chu D, Keresztes R, Zhu X, Wu S. Risk of venous thromboembolism with the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab in cancer patients: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;300:2277–85.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2008.656.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Geerts WH, Bergqvist D, Pineo GF, Heit JA, Samama CM, Lassen MR, Colwell CW. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th edition). Chest. 2008;133:381S–453S.  https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.08-0656.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Margulis V, Matin SF, Tannir N, Tamboli P, Swanson DA, Jonasch E, Wood CG. Surgical morbidity associated with administration of targeted molecular therapies before cytoreductive nephrectomy or resection of locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2008;180:94–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2008.03.047.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    European Medicines Agency. EU SmPC 06/01/2012 Nexavar -EMEA/H/C/000690 -IB/0031/G. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000690/WC500027704.pdf. Accessed 01 Jul 2017
  134. 134.
    European Medicines Agency. EU SmPC 16/03/2012 Sutent -EMEA/H/C/000687 -IB/0034. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000687/WC500057737.pdf. Accessed 01 Jul 2017
  135. 135.
    European Medicines Agency. EU SmPC 24/10/2011 Votrient -EMEA/H/C/001141 -II/0005, II/0006, II0008. http://www.emea.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/001141/WC500094272.pdf. Accessed 01 Jul 2017
  136. 136.
    European Medicines Agency. EU SmPC 06/02/2012 Avastin -EMEA/H/C/000582 -II/0048. http://www.emea.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000582/WC500029271.pdf. Accessed 1 Jul 2017
  137. 137.
    European Medicines Agency. Eu SmPC 02/09/2011 Torisel -EMEA/H/C/000799 -T/0039. http://www.emea.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000799/WC500039912.pdf. Accessed 01 Jul 2017
  138. 138.
    European Medicines Agency. EU SmPC 22/11/2011 Afinitor -EMEA/H/C/001038 -II/0014. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/001038/WC500022814.pdf. Accessed 01 Jul 2017

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bertrand F. Tombal
    • 1
  • Christine Remacle
    • 1
  • Monique Kasa Vubu
    • 1
  1. 1.Service d’Urologie, Cliniques universitaires Saint LucBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations