• Dadin Prando MooreEmail author
  • Maria Cecilia Venturini


This chapter emphasizes the research performed on canine and bovine neosporosis during almost three decades after its description. This parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Neospora caninum is associated with neuromuscular disorders in dogs and abortions in cattle. Neosporosis was first recognized in dogs in Norway, but its description of N. caninum as a new genus and species was proposed in the USA by Dubey and collaborators in 1988. After the protozoan was isolated from dogs suffering the disease, neosporosis was recognized as the first cause of bovine abortion in dairy cattle from California, USA. Noteworthy, N. caninum is one of the most efficiently congenitally-transmitted organisms. N. caninum-infected cows deliver up to 90% of congenitally infected calves. After the indirect fluorescent antibody test was described for serological diagnosis of neosporosis, many serological tests were developed for detection of antibodies in cattle and other domestic and wild species. The definitive host was unknown until 1998, when N. caninum oocysts were identified and characterized in dogs experimentally fed with infected mouse tissues. Experimental oral infection of cattle with N. caninum oocysts was achieved later on. Nowadays, additional definitive hosts have been described: the coyote (Canis latrans), the Australian dingo (Canis lupus dingo), and the wolf (Canis lupus). Treatments of neuromuscular neosporosis in dogs have been successfully described, but no vaccine or drugs are available for controlling neosporosis in cattle even though economic losses have been estimated in over 1 billion dollars in both beef and dairy industry worldwide.


Neospora caninum Dogs Cattle Neosporosis 


  1. Abe C, Tanaka S, Nishimura M, Ihara F, Xuan X, Nishikawa Y. Role of the chemokine receptor CCR5-dependent host defense system in Neospora caninum infections. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:e5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguado-Martínez A, Álvarez-García G, Fernández-García A, Risco-Castillo V, Arnaiz-Seco I, Rebordosa-Trigueros X, Navarro-Lozano V, Ortega-Mora LM. Usefulness of rNcGRA7- and rNcSAG4-based ELISA tests for distinguishing primo-infection, recrudescence, and chronic bovine neosporosis. Vet Parasitol. 2008;157(3-4):182–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almería S. Neospora caninum and wildlife. ISRN Parasitol. 2013;947347. doi: Scholar
  4. Álvarez-García G, Pereira-Bueno J, Gómez-Bautista M, Ortega-Mora LM. Pattern of recognition of Neospora caninum tachyzoite antigens by naturally infected pregnant cattle and aborted foetuses. Vet Parasitol. 2002;107:15–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alvarez-García G, García-Culebras A, Gutiérrez-Expósito D, Navarro-Lozano V, Pastor-Fernández I, Ortega-Mora LM. Serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis: a comparative study of commercially available ELISA tests. Vet Parasitol. 2013;198:85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson ML, Andrianarivo AG, Conrad PA. Neosporosis in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci. 2000;60-61:417–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson ML, Palmer CW, Thurmond MC, Picanso JP, Blanchard PC, Breitmeyer RE, Layton AW, McAllister M, Daft B, Kinde H, Read DH, Dubey JP, Conrad PA, Barr BC. Evaluation of abortions in cattle attributable to neosporosis in selected dairy herds in California. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1995;207:1206–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson ML, Reynolds JP, Rowe JD, Sverlow KW, Packham AE, Barr BC, Conrad PA. Evidence of vertical transmission of Neospora sp. infection in dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1997;210:1169–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Asmare K, Regassa F, Robertson LJ, Skijerve E. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and associated risk factors in intensive or semi-intensively managed dairy and breeding cattle of Ethiopia. Vet Parasitol. 2013;193:85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bacigalupe D, Basso W, Caspe SG, Moré G, Lischinsky L, Gos ML, Leunda M, Campero L, Moore DP, Schares G, Campero CM, Venturini MC. Neospora caninum NC-6 Argentina induces fetopathy in both serologically positive and negative experimentally inoculated pregnant dams. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:2585–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bandini LA, Neto AFA, Pena HFJ, Cavalcante GT, Schares G, Nishi SM, Gennari SM. Experimental infection of dogs (Canis familiaris) with sporulated oocysts of Neospora caninum. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:151–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barber JS, Trees AJ. Clinical aspects of 27 cases of neosporosis in dogs. Vet Rec. 1996;139:439–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barber JS, Trees AJ. Naturally occurring vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in dogs. Int J Parasitol. 1998;28:57–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barling KS, Sherman M, Peterson MJ, Thompson JA, McNeill JW, Craig TM, Adams LG. Spatial associations among density of cattle, abundance of wild canids, and seroprevalence to Neospora caninum in a population of beef calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000;217:1361–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barling KS, McNeill JW, Paschal JC, McCollum FT III, Craig TM, Adams LG, Thompson JA. Ranch-management factors associated with antibody seropositivity for Neospora caninum in consignments of beef calves in Texas, USA. Prev Vet Med. 2001;52:53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barr BC, Anderson ML, Dubey JP, Conrad PA. Neospora-like protozoal infections associated with bovine abortions. Vet Pathol. 1991;28:110–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barr BC, Rowe JD, Sverlow KW, BonDurant RH, Ardans AA, Oliver MN, Conrad PA. Experimental reproduction of bovine fetal Neospora infection and death with a bovine Neospora isolate. J Vet Diagn Investig. 1994;6:207–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bartels CJM, Wouda W, Schukken YH. Risk factors for Neospora caninum-associated abortion storms in dairy herds in the Netherlands (1995 to 1997). Theriogenology. 1999;52:247–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bartley PM, Wright SE, Maley SW, Buxton D, Nath M, Innes EA. The development of immune responses in Balb/c mice following inoculation with attenuated or virulent Neospora caninum tachyzoites. Parasite Immunol. 2009;31:392–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Basso W, Venturini L, Venturini MC, Hill DE, Kwok OCH, Shen SK, Dubey JP. First isolation of Neospora caninum from the feces of a naturally infected dog. J Parasitol. 2001a;87:612–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Basso W, Venturini L, Venturini MC, Moore P, Rambeau M, Unzaga JM, Campero C, Bacigalupe D, Dubey JP. Prevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dogs from beef-cattle farms, dairy farms, and from urban areas of Argentina. J Parasitol. 2001b;87:906–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Basso W, Schares S, Minke L, Bärwald A, Maksimov A, Peters M, Schulze C, Müller M, Conraths FJ, Schares G. Microsatellite typing and avidity analysis suggest a common source of infection in herds with epidemic Neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion. Vet Parasitol. 2010;173:24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Baszler TV, Knowles DP, Dubey JP, Gay JM, Mathison BA, McElwain TF. Serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis by Neospora caninum monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:1423–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Baszler TV, Gay LJC, Long MT, Mathison BA. Detection by PCR of Neospora caninum in fetal tissues from spontaneous bovine abortions. J Clin Microbiol. 1999a;37:4059–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Behrendt JH, Taubert A, Zahner H, Hermosilla C. Studies on synchronous egress of coccidian parasites (Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Eimeria bovis) from bovine endothelial host cells mediated by calcium ionophore A23187. Vet Res Commun. 2008;32:325–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Beiting DP, Peixoto L, Akopyants NS, Beverley SM, Wherry EJ, Christian DA, Hunter CA, Brodsky IE, Roos DS. Differential induction of TLR3-dependent innate immune signaling by closely related parasite species. PLoS One. 2014;9:e88398.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bjerkås I, Mohn SF, Presthus J. Unidentified cyst-forming sporozoon causing encephalomyelitis and myositis in dogs. Z Parasitenkd. 1984;70:271–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Björkman C, Lundén A, Holmdahl J, Barber J, Trees AJ, Uggla A. Neospora caninum in dogs: detection of antibodies by ELISA using an iscom antigen. Parasite Immunol. 1994;16:643–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Björkman C, Näslund K, Stenlund S, Maley SW, Buxton D, Uggla A. An IgG avidity ELISA to discriminate between recent and chronic Neospora caninum infection. J Vet Diagn Investig. 1999;11:41–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Björkman C, Alenius S, Emanuelsson U, Uggla A. Neospora caninum and bovine virus diarrhoea virus infections in Swedish dairy cows in relation to abortion. Vet J. 2000;159:201–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Botelho AS, Teixeira L, Correia da Costa JM, Faustino AMR, Castro AG, Vilanova M. Neospora caninum: high susceptibility to the parasite in C57BL/10ScCr mice. Exp Parasitol. 2007;115:68–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Calandra PM, Di Matía JM, Cano DB, Odriozola EA, García JA, Späth EAJ, Odeón AC, Paolicchi FA, Morrell EL, Campero CM, Moore DP. Neosporosis epidémica y endémica: descripción de dos eventos en bovinos para cría. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2014;46:315–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Campero CM, Anderson ML, Conosciuto G, Odriozola H, Bretschneider G, Poso MA. Neospora caninum-associated abortion in a dairy herd in Argentina. Vet Rec. 1998;143:228–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Campero CM, Moore DP, Lagomarsino H, Odeón AC, Castro M, Visca H. Serological status and abortion rate in progeny obtained by natural service or embryo transfer from Neospora caninum-seropositive cows. J Veterinary Med Ser B. 2003;50:458–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Campero LM, Minke L, Moré G, Rambeaud M, Bacigalupe D, Moore DP, Hecker Y, Campero CM, Schares G, Venturini MC. Evaluation and comparison of serological methods for the detection of bovine neosporosis in Argentina. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2015a;47:295–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Campero LM, Venturini MC, Moore DP, Massola L, Lagomarsino H, García B, Bacigalupe D, Rambeaud M, Pardini L, Leunda MR, Schares G, Campero CM. Isolation and molecular characterization of a new Neospora caninum isolate from cattle in Argentina. Exp Parasitol. 2015b;155:8–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cantón GJ, Katzer F, Maley SW, Bartley PM, Benavides-Silván J, Palarea-Albaladejo J, Pang Y, Smith SH, Rocchi MS, Buxton D, Innes EA, Chianini F. Inflammatory infiltration into placentas of Neospora caninum challenged cattle correlates with clinical outcome of pregnancy. Vet Res. 2014;45:e11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cardoso R, Soares H, Hemphill A, Leitão A. Apicomplexans pulling the strings: manipulation of the host cell cytoskeleton dynamics. Parasitology. 2016;143(8):957–70. Scholar
  39. Carruthers VB, Blackman MJ. A new release on life: emerging concepts in proteolysis and parasite invasion. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:1617–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Caspe SG, Moore DP, Leunda MR, Cano DB, Lischinsky L, Regidor-Cerrillo J, Álvarez García G, Echaide IG, Bacigalupe D, Ortega Mora LM, Odeón AC, Campero CM. The Neospora caninum-Spain 7 isolate induces placental damage, fetal death and abortion in cattle when inoculated in early gestation. Vet Parasitol. 2012;189:171–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cochrane SM, Dubey JP. Neosporosis in a golden retriever dog from Ontario. Can Vet J. 1993;34:232–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Cole RA, Lindsay DS, Blagburn BL, Dubey JP. Vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in mice. J Parasitol. 1995;81:730–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Collantes-Fernández E, Zaballos Á, Álvarez-García G, Ortega-Mora LM. Quantitative detection of Neospora caninum in bovine aborted fetuses and experimentally infected mice by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:1194–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Corbellini LG, Pescador CA, Frantz F, Wunder E, Steffen D, Smith DR, Driemeier D. Diagnostic survey of bovine abortion with special reference to Neospora caninum infection: importance, repeated abortion and concurrent infection in aborted fetuses in Southern Brazil. Vet J. 2006;172:114–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cringoli G, Rinaldi L, Capuano F, Baldi L, Veneziano V, Capelli G. Serological survey of Neospora caninum and Leishmania infantum co infectionin dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2002;106(4):307–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Davison HC, Guy CS, McGarry JW, Guy F, Williams DJL, Kelly DF, Trees AJ. Experimental studies on the transmission of Neospora caninum between cattle. Res Vet Sci. 2001;70:163–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Davoli-Ferreira M, Fonseca DM, Mota CM, Dias MS, Lima-Junior DS, da Silva MV, Quirino GFS, Zamboni DS, Silva JS, Mineo TWP. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 prompts potent inflammatory stimuli during Neospora caninum infection. Sci Rep. 2016;6:29289.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. de Marez T, Liddell S, Dubey JP, Jenkins MC, Gasbarre L. Oral infection of calves with Neospora caninum oocysts from dogs: humoral and cellular immune responses. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:1647–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dijkstra T, Barkema HW, Eysker M, Beiboer ML, Wouda W. Evaluation of a single serological screening of dairy herds for Neospora caninum antibodies. Vet Parasitol. 2003;110:161–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Donahoe SL, Lindsay SA, Krockenberger M, Phalen D, Slapeta J. A review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of Neospora caninum infection in wildlife. Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2015;4:216–38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dubey JP. Neosporosis in dogs. Commonwealth Agric Bureau Rev. 2013;8:055.Google Scholar
  52. Dubey JP, Lindsay DS. Transplacental Neospora caninum infection in cats. J Parasitol. 1989a;75:765–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dubey JP, Lindsay DS. Transplacental Neospora caninum infection in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1989b;50:1578–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dubey JP, Lindsay DS. Neospora caninum induced abortion in sheep. J Vet Diagn Investig. 1990;2:230–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dubey JP, Lindsay DS. A review of Neospora caninum and neosporosis. Vet Parasitol. 1996;67:1–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dubey JP, Schares G. Neosporosis in animals—the last five years. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:90–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dubey JP, Carpenter JL, Speer CA, Topper MJ, Uggla A. Newly recognized fatal protozoan disease of dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1988a;192:1269–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Dubey JP, Hattel AL, Lindsay DS, Topper MJ. Neonatal Neospora caninum infection in dogs: isolation of the causative agent and experimental transmission. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1988b;193:1259–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dubey JP, Koestner A, Piper RC. Repeated transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990;197:857–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Dubey JP, Lindsay DS, Anderson ML, Davis SW, Shen SK. Induced transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992;201:709–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Dubey JP, Lindsay DS, Adams DS, Gay JM, Baszler TV, Blagburn BL, Thulliez P. Serologic responses of cattle and other animals infected with Neospora caninum. Am J Vet Res. 1996;57:329–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dubey JP, Barr BC, Barta JR, Bjerkås I, Björkman C, Blagburn BL, Bowman DD, Buxton D, Ellis JT, Gottstein B, Hemphill A, Hill DE, Howe DK, Jenkins MC, Kobayashi Y, Koudela B, Marsh AE, Mattsson JG, McAllister MM, Modrý D, Omata Y, Sibley LD, Speer CA, Trees AJ, Uggla A, Upton SJ, Williams DJL, Lindsay DS. Redescription of Neospora caninum and its differentiation from related coccidia. Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:929–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dubey JP, Sreekumar C, Knickman E, Miska KB, Vianna MCB, Kwok OCH, Hill DE, Jenkins MC, Lindsay DS, Greene CE. Biologic, morphologic, and molecular characterisation of Neospora caninum isolates from littermate dogs. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:1157–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dubey JP, Buxton D, Wouda W. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis. J Comp Pathol. 2006;134:267–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dubey JP, Schares G, Ortega-Mora LM. Epidemiology and control of neosporosis and Neospora caninum. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20:323–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Dubey JP, Jenkins MC, Rajendran C, Miska K, Ferreira LR, Martins J, Kwok OCH, Choudhary S. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:382–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ellis JT, McMillan D, Ryce C, Payne S, Atkinson R, Harper PAW. Development of a single tube nested polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Neospora caninum DNA. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:1589–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Eperon B, Hemphill G. Susceptibility of B-cell deficient C57BL/6 (muMT) mice to Neospora caninum infection. Parasite Immunol. 1999;21(5):225–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Feng X, Zhang N, Tuo W. Neospora caninum tachyzoite –and antigen-stimulatedcytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and spleen cells of naïve BALB/c mice. J Parasitol. 2010;96:717–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Fioretti DP, Pasquai P, Diaferia M, Mangili V, Rosignoli L. Neospora caninum infection and congenital transmission: serological and parasitological study of cows up to the fourth gestation. J Vet Med B. 2003;50:399–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Furuta PI, Mineo TWP, Carrasco AOT, Godoy GS, Pinto AA, Machado RZ. Neospora caninum infection in birds: experimental infections in chicken and embryonated eggs. Parasitology. 2007;134:1931–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gennari SM, Yai LEO, D'Áuria SNR, Cardoso SMS, Kwok OCH, Jenkins MC, Dubey JP. Occurrence of Neospora caninum antibodies in sera from dogs of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2002;106:177–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ghalmi F, China B, Kaidi R, Daube G, Losson B. Detection of Neospora caninum in dog organs using real time PCR systems. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155:161–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ghanem ME, Suzuki T, Akita M, Nishibori M. Neospora caninum and complex vertebral malformation as possible causes of bovine fetal mummification. Can Vet J. 2009;50:389–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Gondim LFP, McAllister MM, Pitt WC, Zemlicka DE. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:159–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Goodswen SJ, Kennedy PJ, Ellis JT. A review of the infection, genetics, and evolution of Neospora caninum: from the past to the present. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;13:133–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gottstein B, Eperon S, Dai WJ, Cannas A, Hemphill A, Greif G. Efficacy of toltrazuril and ponazuril against experimental Neospora caninum infection in mice. Parasitol Res. 2001;87:43–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Goždzik K, Wrzesień R, Wielgosz-Ostolska A, Bien J, Kozak-Ljunggren M, Cabaj W. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora caninum in dogs from urban areas in Central Poland. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:991–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Greig B, Rossow KD, Collins JE, Dubey JP. Neospora caninum pneumonia in an adult dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1995;206:1000–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Haerdi C, Haessig M, Sager H, Greif G, Staubli D, Gottstein B. Humoral immune reaction of newborn calves congenitally infected with Neospora caninum and experimentally treated with toltrazuril. Parasitol Res. 2006;99:534–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hecker YP, Moore DP, Quattrocchi V, Regidor-Cerrillo J, Verna A, Leunda MR, Morrell E, Ortega-Mora LM, Zamorano P, Venturini MC, Campero CM. Immune response and protection provided by live tachyzoites and native antigens from the NC-6 Argentina strain of Neospora caninum in pregnant heifers. Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:436–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Heckeroth AR, Tenter AM. Immunoanalysis of three litters born to a Doberman bitch infected with Neospora caninum. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:837–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hemphill A, Gottstein B. Neospora caninum and neosporosis—recent achievements in host and parasite cell biology and treatment. Acta Parasitol. 2006;51:15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Herman RK, Molestina RE, Sinai AP, Howe DK. The Apicomplexan pathogen Neospora caninum inhibits host cell apoptosis in the absence of discernible NF-κB activation. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4255–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hobson JC, Duffield TF, Kelton D, Lissemore K, Hietala SK, Leslie KE, McEwen B, Peregrine AS. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum abortion in Ontario Holstein dairy herds. Vet Parasitol. 2005;127:177–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Holmberg TA, Vernau W, Melli AC, Conrad PA. Neospora caninum associated with septic peritonitis in an adult dog. Vet Clin Pathol. 2006;35:235–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Holmdahl OJM, Mattsson JG. Rapid and sensitive identification of Neospora caninum by in vitro amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 1. Parasitology. 1996;112:177–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hoon-Hanks LL, Regan D, Dubey JP, Porter MC, Duncan CG. Hepatic neosporosis in a dog treated for pemphigus foliaceus. J Vet Diagn Investig. 2013;25:807–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hosseininejad M, Hosseini F, Mosharraf M, Shahbaz S, Mahzounieh M, Schares G. Development of an indirect ELISA test using an affinity purified surface antigen (P38) for sero-diagnosis of canine Neospora caninum infection. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:337–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Innes EA, Andrianarivo AG, Björkman C, Williams DJL, Conrad PA. Immune responses to Neospora caninum and prospects for vaccination. Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:497–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jardine JE, Dubey JP. Canine neosporosis in South Africa. Vet Parasitol. 1992;44:291–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kasper LH, Khan IA. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells protect against lethal toxoplasmosis in mice infected with Neospora caninum. Infect Immun. 1998;66:1554–60.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Khan IA, Schwartzman JD, Fonseka S, Kasper LH. Neospora caninum: role for immune cytokines in host immunity. Exp Parasitol. 1997;85:24–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. King JS, Šlapeta J, Jenkins DJ, Al-Qassab SE, Ellis JT, Windsor PA. Australian dingoes are definitive host of Neospora caninum. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:945–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kubota N, Sakata Y, Miyazaki N, Itamoto K, Bannai H, Nishikawa Y, Xuan X, Inokuma H. Serological survey of Neospora caninum infection among dogs in Japan through species-specific ELISA. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70:869–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. La Perle KMD, Del Piero F, Carr RF, Harris C, Stromberg PC. Cutaneous neosporosis in two adult dogs on chronic immunosuppressive therapy. J Vet Diagn Investig. 2001;13:252–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Legnani S, Pantchev N, Forlani A, Zini E, Schares G, Balzer J, Roccabianca P, Ferri F, Zanna G. Emergence of cutaneous neosporosis in a dog receiving immunosuppressive therapy: molecular identification and management. Vet Dermatol. 2015;27:49–e14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lei Y, Davey M, Ellis J. Autofluorescence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum cysts in vitro. J Parasitol. 2005;91:202–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lindsay DS, Dubey JP. In vitro development of Neospora caninum (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from dogs. J Parasitol. 1989;75:163–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lindsay DS, Blagburn BL, Dubey JP. Factors affecting the survival of Neospora caninum bradyzoites in murine tissues. J Parasitol. 1992;78:70–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lindsay DS, Butler JM, Rippey NS, Blagburn BL. Demonstration of synergistic effects of sulfonamides and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase inhibitors against Neospora caninum tachyzoites in cultured cells, and characterization of mutants resistant to pyrimethamine. Am J Vet Res. 1996;57:68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lindsay DS, Dubey JP, Duncan RB. Confirmation that the dog is a definitive host for Neospora caninum. Vet Parasitol. 1999a;82:327–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lindsay DS, Upton SJ, Dubey JP. A structural study of the Neospora caninum oocyst. Int J Parasitol. 1999b;29:1521–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Marín MS, Hecker YP, Quintana S, Pérez SE, Leunda MR, Cantón GJ, Cobo ER, Moore DP, Odeón AC. Toll-like receptors 3, 7 and 8 are upregulated in the placental caruncle and fetal spleen of Neospora caninum experimentally infected cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2017;236:58–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Marsh AE, Barr BC, Packham AE, Conrad PA. Description of a new Neospora species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae). J Parasitol. 1998;84:983–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. McAllister MM, Björkman C, Anderson-Sprecher R, Rogers DG. Evidence of point-source exposure to and protective immunity in a herd of beef cows. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000;217(6):881–7.Google Scholar
  107. McAllister MM. Diagnosis and control of bovine Neosporosis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2016;32:443–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. McAllister M, Huffman EM, Hietala SK, Conrad PA, Anderson ML, Salman MD. Evidence suggesting a point source exposure in an outbreak of bovine abortion due to neosporosis. J Vet Diagn Investig. 1996;8:355–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. McAllister MM, Dubey JP, Lindsay DS, Jolley WR, Wills RA, McGuire AM. Dogs are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum. Int J Parasitol. 1998;28:1473–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McAllister MM, Björkman C, Anderson-Sprecher R, Rogers DG. Evidence of point-source exposure to and protective immunity in a herd of beef cows. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000;217(6):881–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Meseck EK, Njaa BL, Haley NJ, Park EH, Barr SC. Use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction to rapidly differentiate Neospora caninum from Toxoplasma gondii in an adult dog with necrotizing myocarditis and myocardial infarct. J Vet Diagn Investig. 2005;17:565–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Micheloud JF, Moore DP, Canal AM, Lischinsky L, Hecker YP, Canton GJ, Odriozola E, Odeon AC, Campero CM. First report of congenital Neospora caninum encephalomyelitis in two newborn calves in the Argentinean Pampas. J Vet Sci Technol. 2015;6:251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Moore DP, Campero CM, Odeón AC, Posso MA, Cano D, Leunda MR, Basso W, Venturini MC, Späth E. Seroepidemiology of beef and dairy herds and fetal study of Neospora caninum in Argentina. Vet Parasitol. 2002;107:303–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Moore DP, Perez A, Agliano S, Brace M, Canton G, Cano D, Leunda MR, Odeón AC, Odriozola E, Campero CM. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum infections in cattle in Argentina. Vet Parasitol. 2009;161:122–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Moraveji M, Hosseini A, Moghaddar N, Namavari MM, Eskandari MH. Development of latex agglutination test with recombinant NcSAG1 for the rapid detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2012;189:211–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Moré G, Bacigalupe D, Basso W, Rambeaud M, Beltrame F, Ramirez B, Venturini MC, Venturini L. Frequency of horizontal and vertical transmission for Sarcocystis cruzi and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:51–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Moskwa B, Pastusiak K, Bien J, Cabaj W. The first detection of Neospora caninum DNA in the colostrum of infected cows. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:633–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Müller N, Zimmermann V, Hentrich B, Gottstein B. Diagnosis of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection by PCR and DNA hybridization immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:2850–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Müller J, Aguado-Martínez A, Manser V, Wong HN, Haynes RK, Hemphill A. Repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model. Vet Res. 2016;47:32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Nishikawa Y, Mishima M, Nagasawa H, Igarashi I, Fujisaki K, Otsuka H, Mikami T. Interferon-gamma-induced apoptosis in host cells infected with Neospora caninum. Parasitology. 2001a;123:25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Nishikawa Y, Tragoolpua K, Inoue N, Makala L, Nagasawa H, Otsuka H, Mikami T. In the absence of endogenous gamma interferon, mice acutely infected with Neospora caninum succumb to a lethal immune response characterized by inactivation of peritoneal macrophages. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001b;8:811–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Nishikawa Y, Inoue N, Makala L, Nagasawa H. A role for balance of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 production in protective immunity against Neospora caninum infection. Vet Parasitol. 2003;116:175–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Nogueira CI, Mesquita LP, Abreu CC, Nakagaki KYR, Seixas JN, Bezerra PS, Rocha CMBM, Guimaraes AM, Peconick AP, Varaschin MS. Risk factors associated with seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs from urban and rural areas of milk and coffee production in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:2286–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Odin M, Dubey JP. Sudden death associated with Neospora caninum myocarditis in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993;203:831–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Okeoma CM, Stowell KM, Williamson NB, Pomroy WE. Neospora caninum: quantification of DNA in the blood of naturally infected aborted and pregnant cows using real-time PCR. Exp Parasitol. 2005;110:48–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ortega-Mora LM, Ferre I, del Pozo I, Caetano da Silva A, Collantes-Fernández E, Regidor-Cerrillo J, Ugarte-Garagalza C, Aduriz G. Detection of Neospora caninum in semen of bulls. Vet Parasitol. 2003;117:301–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Paré J, Hietala SK, Thurmond MC. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological diagnosis of Neospora sp. infection in cattle. J Vet Diagn Investig. 1995;7:352–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pereira GR, Vogel FSF, Bohrer RC, da Nóbrega JE, Ilha GF, da Rosa PRA, Glanzner WG, Camillo G, Braunig P, de Oliveira JFC, Gonçalves PBD. Neospora caninum DNA detection by TaqMan real-time PCR assay in experimentally infected pregnant heifers. Vet Parasitol. 2014;199:129–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Pessoa GA, Martini AP, Trentin JM, Dalcin VC, Leonardi CEP, Vogel FSF, de Sá Filho MF, Rubin MIB, Silva CAM. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology. 2016;85:519–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Perl S, Harrus S, Satuchne C, Yakobson B, Haines D. Cutaneous neosporosis in a dog in Israel. Vet Parasitol. 1998;79(3):257–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Peters M, Lütkefels E, Heckeroth AR, Schares G. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evidence for Neospora caninum tissue cysts in skeletal muscles of naturally infected dogs and cattle. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:1144–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pinitkiatisakul S, Mattsson JG, Lundén A. Quantitative analysis of parasite DNA in the blood of immunized and naive mice after infection with Neospora caninum. Parasitology. 2008;135:175–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Quintanilla-Gozalo A, Pereira-Bueno J, Tabarés E, Innes EA, González-Paniello R, Ortega-Mora LM. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy and beef cattle in Spain. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:1201–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Regidor-Cerrillo J, Díez-Fuertes F, García-Culebras A, Moore DP, González-Warleta M, Cuevas C, Schares G, Katzer F, Pedraza-Díaz S, Mezo M, Ortega-Mora LM. Genetic diversity and geographic population structure of bovine Neospora canium determined by microsatellite genotyping analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8:e72678.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reichel MP, Drake JM. The diagnosis of Neospora abortions in cattle. N Z Vet J. 1996;44:151–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Reichel MP, Moore DP, Hemphill A, Ortega-Mora LM, Dubey JP, Ellis JT. A live vaccine against Neospora caninum abortions in cattle. Vaccine. 2015;33:1299–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Reitt K, Hilbe M, Voegtlin A, Corboz L, Haessig M, Pospischil A. Aetiology of bovine abortion in Switzerland from 1986 to 1995—A retrospective study with emphasis on detection of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by PCR. J Vet Med A. 2007;54:15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rinaldi L, Pacelli F, Iovane G, Pagnini U, Veneziano V, Fusco G, Cringoli G. Survey of Neospora caninum and bovine herpes virus 1 coinfection in cattle. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:359–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ritter DM, Kerlin R, Sibert G, Brake D. Immune factors influencing the course of infection with Neospora caninum in the murine host. J Parasitol. 2002;88(2):271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Romand S, Thulliez P, Dubey JP. Direct agglutination test for serologic diagnosis of Neospora caninum infection. Parasitol Res. 1998;84:50–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sánchez GF, Banda RVM, Sahagun RA, Ledesma MN, Morales SE. Comparison between immunohistochemistry and two PCR methods for detection of Neospora caninum in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue of bovine fetuses. Vet Parasitol. 2009;164:328–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Santolaria P, Almería S, Martínez-Bello D, Nogareda C, Mezo M, Gonzalez-Warleta M, Castro-Hermida JA, Pabón M, Yániz JL, López-Gatius F. Different humoral mechanisms against Neospora caninum infection in purebreed and crossbreed beef/dairy cattle pregnancies. Vet Parasitol. 2011;178:70–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sibley LD, Niesman IR, Parmley SF, Cesbron-Delauw MF. Regulated secretion of multi-lamellar vesicles leads to formation of a tubulovesicular network in host-cell vacuoles occupied by Toxoplasma gondii. J Cell Sci. 1995;108:1669–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sicupira PML, de Magalhães VCS, Galvão GS, Pereira MJS, Gondim LFP, Munhoz AD. Factors associated with infection by Neospora caninum in dogs in Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2012;185:305–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sierra RC, Medina-Esparza L, Parra MR, García-Vázquez Z, Cruz-Vázquez C. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum antibody seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Rev Mex Cienc Pecu. 2011;2:15–24.Google Scholar
  146. Strohbusch M, Müller N, Hemphill A, Margos M, Grandgirard D, Leib S, Greif G, Gottstein B. Neospora caninum and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells: parasite survival, proliferation, and induction of cytokine expression. Parasite Immunol. 2009;31:366–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tanaka T, Hamada T, Inoue N, Nagasawa H, Fujisaki K, Suzuki N, Mikami T. The role of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in the protective immune response of BALB/c mice to Neospora caninum infection. Vet Parasitol. 2000;90:183–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Thilsted JP, Dubey JP. Neosporosis-like abortions in a herd of dairy cattle. J Vet Diagn Investig. 1989;1:205–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Thurmond M, Hietala S. Strategies to control Neospora infection in cattle. Bovine Pract. 1995;29:60–3.Google Scholar
  150. Thurmond MC, Hietala SK. Effect of congenitally acquired Neospora caninum infection on risk of abortion and subsequent abortions in dairy cattle. Am J Vet Res. 1997;58:1381–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Tramuta C, Lacerenza D, Zoppi S, Goria M, Dondo A, Ferroglio E, Nebbia P, Rosati S. Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples. J Vet Diagn Investig. 2011;23:657–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Trees AJ, Williams DJL. Endogenous and exogenous transplacental infection in Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:558–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Uzeda RS, Costa KS, Santos SL, Pinheiro AM, de Almeida MAO, McAllister MM, Gondim LFP. Loss of infectivity of Neospora caninum oocyts maintained for a prolonged time. Korean J Parasitol. 2007;45:295–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. VanLeeuwen JA, Haddad JP, Dohoo IR, Keefe GP, Tiwari A, Scott HM. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum seropositivity in randomly sampled Canadian dairy cows and herds. Prev Vet Med. 2010;93:129–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Vonlaufen N, Gianinazzi C, Müller N, Simon F, Björkman C, Jungi TW, Leib SL, Hemphill A. Infection of organotypic slice cultures from rat central nervous tissue with Neospora caninum: an alternative approach to study host-parasite interactions. Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:533–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Waldner CL. Serological status for Neospora caninum, bovine viral darrhea virus, and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus at pregnancy testing and reproductive performance in beef herds. Anim Reprod Sci. 2005;90:219–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wilkowsky SE, Bareiro GG, Mon ML, Moore DP, Caspe G, Campero C, Fort M, Romano MI. An applied printing immunoassay with recombinant Nc-SAG1 for detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in cattle. J Vet Diagn Investig. 2011;23:971–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Williams DJL, Guy CS, McGarry JW, Guy F, Tasker L, Smith RF, MacEachern K, Cripps PJ, Kelly DF, Trees AJ. Neospora caninum-associated abortion in cattle: the time of experimentally-induced parasitaemia during gestation determines foetal survival. Parasitology. 2000;121:347–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Woodbine KA, Medley GF, Moore SJ, Ramirez-Villaescusa A, Mason S, Green LE. A four year longitudinal sero-epidemiology study of Neospora caninum in adult cattle from 114 cattle herds in south west England: associations with age, herd and dam-offspring pairs. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wouda W, Bartels CJM, Moen AR. Characteristics of Neospora caninum-associated abortion storms in dairy herds in The Netherlands (1995 to 1997). Theriogenology. 1999;52:233–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Yániz JL, López-Gatius F, García-Ispierto I, Bech-Sàbat G, Serrano B, Nogareda C, Sanchez-Nadal JA, Almería S, Santolaria P. Some factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of Neospora-associated abortions are different in cows and heifers. Reprod Domest Anim. 2010;45:699–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratory of Immunoparasitology (LAINPA), School of Veterinary SciencesNational University of La PlataLa PlataArgentina

Personalised recommendations