Outcome Measures Following Upper Limb Trauma

  • Ramsay Refaie
  • Amar Rangan


Outcome measurement in orthopaedics has evolved considerably in line with advances in orthopaedic care. Region and condition specific outcome measures have been developed as a means of measuring the effectiveness of treatments and interventions. Early outcome scoring systems tended to place a greater emphasis on clinimetric measures such as range of motion or radiographic appearances. As outcome scoring systems have evolved these tend to carry a greater “patient reported” component incorporating both psychosocial and physical scales.

The aim of this chapter is to discuss the importance of outcome measurement as well the rationale for selecting particular outcome measures relevant to trauma around the shoulder girdle.

A review of the literature was performed focusing on outcome measurement for injuries around the shoulder girdle. Commonly used outcome domains and scores were identified and a summary overview presented.

There are several validated outcome measures specifically designed to assess outcome following upper extremity trauma. Their appropriate use could be guided by use of the COSMIN checklist as well as consideration of the questionnaire burden for study participants so as to maximise questionnaire return rates and the validity of results.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramsay Refaie
    • 1
  • Amar Rangan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Trauma & Orthopaedic SurgeryJames Cook University HospitalMiddlesbroughUK
  2. 2.University of OxfordOxfordUK
  3. 3.University of YorkYorkUK

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