Advertisement

Treatment Techniques for Variable Flows

  • Katharina TonderaEmail author
  • Godecke-Tobias Blecken
  • Florent Chazarenc
  • Terry Lucke
  • Chris C. Tanner
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Water Science and Technology book series (BRIEFSWATER)

Abstract

A wide range of ecotechnologies has been applied to treatment of variable stormwater and wastewater flows. Stormwater ponds and basins were already introduced as common ‘end-of-the-pipe’ treatment solutions in the 1960s, almost parallel to the first attempts to develop structured wastewater treatment with the help of plants, inspired by natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands specifically designed for the treatment of variable flows emerged in the 1990s and were joined by a growing group of vegetated filter systems, named bioretention filters, raingardens or retention soil filters, all following the principle of gravity-driven wastewater filtration. This chapter provides a general overview of these treatment facilities, including swales and buffer strips. Although the latter ones are gravity-driven filtration systems, they are commonly used for the treatment of road runoff and are highly adapted to fit into their landscape structure, they are described in a separate section. Each section includes references to detailed design and operation guidelines.

References

  1. Albert A, Brisson J, Dubé J, Lavoie C (2013) Do woody plants prevent the establishment of common reed along highways? Insights from Southern Quebec. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 6(4):585–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Rubaei A (2016) Long-term performance, operation and maintenance needs of stormwater control measures. Dissertation, Luleå University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Rubaei AM, Engström M, Viklander M, Blecken GT (2016) Long-term hydraulic and treatment performance of a 19-year old constructed stormwater wetland Finally maturated or in need of maintenance? Ecol Eng 95:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ávila C, Reyes C, Bayona JM, García J (2013) Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox. Water Res 47:315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bäckström M (2002) Sediment transport in grassed swales during simulated runoff events. Water Sci Technol 45(7):41–49Google Scholar
  6. Bäckström M (2003) Grassed swales for stormwater pollution control during rain and snowmelt. Water Sci Technol 48(9):123–132Google Scholar
  7. Birch GF, Matthai C, Fazeli MS, Suh J (2004) Efficiency of a constructed wetland in removing contaminants from stormwater. Wetlands 24(2):459–466Google Scholar
  8. Blecken GT, Marsalek J, Viklander M (2011) Laboratory study on stormwater biofiltration in cold temperatures: metal removal and fates. Water Air Soil Pollut 219:303–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boogaard FC, van de Ven F, Langeveld JG, van de Giesen N (2014) Stormwater quality characteristics in (Dutch) urban areas and performance of settlement basins. Challenges 5:112–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borne KE (2014) Floating treatment wetland influences on the fate and removal performance of phosphorus in stormwater retention ponds. Ecol Eng 69:76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borne KE, Fassman EA, Tanner CC (2013a) Floating treatment wetland retrofit to improve stormwater pond performance for suspended solids, copper and zinc. Ecol Eng 54:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borne K, Tanner CC, Fassman-Beck E (2013b) Stormwater nitrogen removal performance of a floating treatment wetland. Water Sci Tech 68(7):1657–1664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borne K, Fassman-Beck E, Tanner C (2014) Floating treatment wetland influences on the fate of metals in road runoff retention ponds. Water Res 48:430–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borne KE, Fassman-Beck EA, Winston RJ, Hunt WF (2015) Implementation and maintenance of floating treatment wetlands for urban stormwater management. J Environ Eng 144(11):04015030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brix H (1997) Do Macrophytes play a role in constructed treatment wetlands? Water Sci Technol 35(5):11–17Google Scholar
  16. Bulc T, Slak AS (2003) Performance of constructed wetland for highway runoff treatment. Water Sci Technol 48(2):315–322Google Scholar
  17. Burgess ND, Hirons GJ (1992) Creation and management of artificial nesting sites for wetland birds. J Environ Manage 34:285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carleton JN, Grizzard TJ, Godrej AN, Post HE (2001) Factors affecting the performance of stormwater treatment wetlands. Water Res 35(6):1552–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen Z, Cuervo DP, Müller JA, Wiessner A, Köser H, Vymazal J, Kästner M, Kuschk P (2016) Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment—a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:15911–15928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clar ML, Barfield BJ, O’Connor TP (2004) Stormwater best management practice design guide. National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, USAGoogle Scholar
  21. Comings KJ, Booth DB, Horner RR (2000) Storm water pollutant removal by two wet ponds in bellevue, Washington. J Environ Eng 126(4):321–330Google Scholar
  22. Corapciogliu Y, Haridas A (1984) Transport and fate of microorganisms in porous media: a theoretical investigation. J Hydrol 72:149–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis AP, Stagge JH, Jamil E, Kim H (2012) Hydraulic performance of grass swales for managing highway runoff. Water Res 46(20):6775–6786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deletic A (2005) Sediment transport in urban runoff over grassed areas. J Hydrol 301(1/4):108–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Deletic A, Fletcher TD (2006) Performance of grass filters used for stormwater treatment—a field and modelling study. J Hydrol 317(3/4):261–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dittmer U (2006) Prozesse des Rückhaltes und Umsatzes von Kohlenstoff- und Stickstoffverbindungen in Retentionsbodenfiltern zur Mischwasserbehandlung (Processes and transformation of carbon and nitrogen compounds in retention soil filters for combined sewer overflow treatment). Dissertation, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern. https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1825 (in German)
  27. Dittmer U, Meyer D, Tondera K, Lambert B, Fuchs S (2016) Treatment of CSO in retention soil filters—lessons learned from 25 years of research and practice. In: Proceedings of the 9th NOVATECH, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  28. DWA-A 178 (2017) Arbeitsblatt DWA-A 178: Empfehlungen für Planung, Bau und Betrieb von Retentionsbodenfiltern zur weitergehenden Regenwasserbehandlung im Misch- und Trennsystem (Recommendations for planning, construction and operation of retention soil filters for advanced stormwater treatment in combined and separate sewer systems). German Association for Water Management, Wastewater and Waste, GFA, Hennef (in German; draft)Google Scholar
  29. Ellis JB, Shutes RBE, Revitt MD (2003) Constructed wetlands and links with sustainable drainage systems. Environment Agency, Bristol. https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/6076/1/SP2-159-TR1-e-p.pdf. Accessed 3 Aug 2017
  30. Fassman-Beck E, Wang S, Simcock R, Ruifen L (2014) Assessing the effects of bioretention’s engineered media composition and compaction on hydraulic conductivity. In: Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Sarawak, Malaysia, 7–12 September 2014Google Scholar
  31. Fonder N, Headley T (2013) The taxonomy of treatment wetlands: a proposed classification and nomenclature system. Ecol Eng 51:203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. German J, Svensson G, Gustafsson LG, Vikström M (2003) Modelling of temperature effects on removal efficiency and dissolved oxygen concentrations in stormwater ponds. Water Sci Technol 48(9):145–154Google Scholar
  33. Gold AC, Thompson SP, Piehler MF (2017) Water quality before and after watershed-scale implementation of stormwater wet ponds in the coastal plain. Ecol Eng 105:240–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Greb SR, Bannerman RT (1997) Influence of particle size on wet pond effectiveness. Water Environ Res 69(6):1134–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Griffin P (2003) Ten years experience of treating all flows from combined sewerage systems using package plant and constructed wetland combinations. Water Sci Technol 48:93–99Google Scholar
  36. Grotehusmann D, Lambert B, Fuchs S, Uhl M, Leutnant D (2017) Erhebungsuntersuchung zur Optimierung der Retentionsbodenfilter in NRW (Investigation to optimize retention soil filters in NRW). Final report, Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection of the German Federal State of North 289 Rhine-Westphalia (Ed.), Düsseldorf. https://www.lanuv.nrw.de/uploads/tx_mmkresearchprojects/Abschlussbericht_RBF_NRW.pdf (in German)
  37. Hasselbach R (2013) Leistungsfähigkeit von Pflanzenkläranlagen im Mischsystem mit Lavasand als Filtersubstrat (Performance of Constructed Wetlands in a combined sewer system having lava sand as filter substrate). Doctoral Thesis, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Germany. https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3507 (in German)
  38. Headley TR, Tanner CC (2012) Constructed wetlands with floating emergent macrophytes: an innovative stormwater treatment technology. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 42(21):2261–2310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Healthy Waterways (2006) Water sensitive urban design—technical design guidelines for South East Queensland. Report by Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchment Partnership and Brisbane City CouncilGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoeger S (1988) Schwimmkampen: Germany’s artificial floating islands. J Soil Water Conserv 43:304–306Google Scholar
  41. Hogg EH, Wein RW (1988) The contribution of Typha components to floating mat buoyancy. Ecol 69:1025–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Istenič D, Arias CA, Vollertsen J, Nielsen AH, Wium-Andersen T, Hvitved-Jacobsen T, Brix H (2012) Improve urban stormwater treatment and pollutant removal pathways in amended wet detention ponds. J Environ Sci Health, Part A 47(10):1466–1477Google Scholar
  43. Jones TG, Willis N, Gough R, Freeman C (2017) An experimental use of floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) to reduce phytoplankton growth in freshwaters. Ecol Eng 99:316–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kachchu MMA, Lucke T, Boogaard F (2014) Preliminary investigation into the pollution reduction performance of swales used in a stormwater treatment train. J Water Sci Technol 69(5):1014–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kadlec RH, Reddy KR (2001) Temperature effects in treatment wetlands. Water Environ Res 73(5):543–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kadlec R, Wallace S (2008) Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis GroupGoogle Scholar
  47. Karlsson K, Viklander M, Scholes L, Revitt M (2010) Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks. J Hazard Mater 178(1–3):612–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Keizer-Vlek HE, Verdonschot PFM, Verdonschot RCM, Dekkers D (2014) The contribution of plant uptake to nutrient removal by floating treatment wetlands. Ecol Eng 73:684–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Knowles P, Dotro G, Nivala J (2011) Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands: occurrence and contributing factors. Ecol Eng 37(2):99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kosolapov DB, Kuschk P, Vainshtein MB, Vatsourina AV, Wießner A, Kästner M, Müller RA (2004) Microbial processes of heavy metal removal from carbon-deficient effluents in constructed wetlands. Eng Life Sci 4:403–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Laber J (2000) Constructed wetland system for storm water treatment. J Environ Sci Health, Part A 35:1279–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leisenring M, Clary J, Hobson P (2014) International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) database pollutant category statistical summary report: solids, bacteria, nutrients, and metals. http://www.bmpdatabase.org/performance-summaries.html
  53. Lenhart HA, Hunt WF (2011) Evaluating four storm-water performance metrics with a North Carolina coastal plain storm-water wetland. J Environ Eng 137(2):155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liebens J (2002) Heavy metal contamination of sediments in stormwater management systems: the effect of land use, particle size, and age. Environ Geol 41(3–4):341–351Google Scholar
  55. Lucas R, Earl ER, Babatunde AO, Bockelmann-Evans BN (2015) Constructed wetlands for stormwater management in the UK: a concise review. Civil Eng Environ Syst 32(3):251–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Luoma SN (1983) Bioavailability of trace metals to aquatic organisms—a review. Sci Total Environ 28:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mallin MA, Ensign SH, Wheeler TL, Mayes DB (2002) Pollutant removal efficacy of three wet detention ponds. J Environ Qual 31(2):654Google Scholar
  58. Mangangka IR, Liu A, Goonetilleke A, Egodawatta P (2016) Enhancing the storm water treatment performance of constructed wetlands and bioretention basins. SpringerBriefs in Water Science and Technology, Singapore. ISBN 978-981-10-1659-2Google Scholar
  59. Marsalek J, Marsalek PM (1997) Characteristics of sediments from a stormwater management pond. Water Sci Technol 36(8–9):117–122Google Scholar
  60. Marsalek J, Urbonas B, Lawrence I (2005) Stormwater management ponds. In: Shilton A (ed) Pond treatment technology. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  61. Merriman LS, Hunt WF (2014) Maintenance versus maturation: constructed storm-water wetland’s fifth-year water quality and hydrologic assessment. J Environ Eng 140(10)Google Scholar
  62. Meyer D, Molle P, Esser D, Troesch S, Masi F, Tondera K, Pinnekamp J (2014) Constructed wetlands for combined sewer overflow treatment. Sustainable Sanit Pract 1(18):21–24Google Scholar
  63. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (1993) Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Molle P, Liénard A, Boutin C, Merlin G, Iwema A (2005) How to treat raw sewage with constructed wetlands: an overview of the French systems. Water Sci Technol 51:11–21Google Scholar
  65. Molle P, Liénard A, Grasmick A, Iwema A (2006) Effect of reeds and feeding operations on hydraulic behaviour of vertical flow constructed wetlands under hydraulic overloads. Water Res 40:606–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Muthanna TM, Viklander M, Blecken GT, Thorolfsson ST (2007a) Snowmelt pollutant removal in bioretention areas. Water Res 41:4061–4072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Muthanna TM, Viklander M, Blecken GT, Thorolfsson ST (2007b) Snowmelt pollutant removal in bioretention areas. Water Res 41(18):4061–4072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pavlineri N, Skoulikidis NT, Tsihrintzis VA (2017) Constructed floating wetlands: a review of research, design, operation and management aspects, and data meta-analysis. Chem Eng J 308:1120–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pettersson TJR, German J, Svensson G (1999) Pollutant removal efficiency in two stormwater ponds in Sweden. Proc. 8th International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage, Vol 2. Sydney, Australia, 30 August–3 September, 1999, pp 866-873Google Scholar
  70. Prince George’s County (1993) Design manual for the use of bioretention in stormwater management. The Prince George’s County, Maryland, USAGoogle Scholar
  71. Roseen RM, Ballestero TP, Houle JJ, Avellaneda P, Briggs J, Fowler G, Wildey R (2009) Seasonal performance variations for storm-water management systems in cold climate conditions. J Environ Eng 135(3):128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rousseau DPL, Horton D, Griffin P, Vanrolleghem PA, De Pauw N (2005) Impact of operational maintenance on the asset life of storm reed beds. Water Sci Technol 51:243–250Google Scholar
  73. Sansalone JJ, Buchberger SG (1997) Characterization of solid and metal element distribution in urban highway stormwater. Water Sci Technol 36(8–9):155–160Google Scholar
  74. Schueler T, Lane C, Wood D (2016) Recomendations of the expert panel to define removal rates for floating treatment wetlands in existing wet ponds. Final Report to the Chesapeake Stormwater Network. Sept 2016. http://chesapeakestormwater.net/bmp-resources/floating-treatment-wetlands/. Accessed 15 June 2017
  75. Seidemann RW (1997) Untersuchungen zum Transport von gelösten Stoffen und Partikeln durch heterogene Porengrundwasserleiter (Evaluations of the transport of dissolved substances and particles through heterogeneous ground water layers). Dissertation, Forschungszentrum JülichGoogle Scholar
  76. Shutes RBE, Revitt DM, Mungur AS, Scholes LNL (1997) The design of wetland systems for the treatment of urban run off. Water Sci Technol 35(5):19–25Google Scholar
  77. Søberg LC (2014) Metal pathways in stormwater treatment systems. Licentiate thesis, Luleå University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  78. Southichak B, Nakano K, Nomura M, Chiba N, Nishimura O (2006) Phragmites australis: a novel biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Water Res 40:2295–2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Starzec P, Lind BB, Lanngren A, Lindgren Å, Svenson T (2005) Technical and environmental functioning of detention ponds for the treatment of highway and road runoff. Water Air Soil Pollut 163(1–4):153–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Strosnider WH, Schultz SE, Strosnider KAJ, Nairn RW (2017) Effects on the underlying water column by extensive floating treatment wetlands. J Environ Qual 46:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tanner CC (2001) Plants as ecosystem engineers in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands. Water Sci Technol 44(11–12):9–17Google Scholar
  82. Tao W, Bays J, Meyer D, Smardon R, Levy Z (2014) Constructed wetlands for treatment of combined sewer overflow in the US: a review of design challenges and application status. Water 6(11):3362–3385Google Scholar
  83. Tanner CC, Headley TR (2011) Components of floating emergent macrophyte treatment wetlands influencing removal of stormwater pollutants. Ecol Eng 37:474–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Terzakis S, Fountoulakis MS, Georgaki I, Albantakis D, Sabathianakis I, Karathanasis AD, Kalogerakis N, Manios T (2008) Constructed wetlands treating highway runoff in the central Mediterranean region. Chemosphere 72(2):141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Van Buren MA, Watt WE, Marsalek J (1997) Removal of selected urban stormwater constituents by an on-stream pond. J Environ Plan Manage 40(1):5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Van de Moortel AMK, Laing GD, Pauw ND, Tack FMG (2011) Distribution and mobilization of pollutants in the sediment of a constructed floating wetland used for treatment of combined sewer overflow events. Water Environ Res 83(5):427–439Google Scholar
  87. VanLoon G, Anderson BC, Watt WE, Marsalek J (2000) Characterizing stormwater sediments for ecotoxic risk. Water Qual Res J Canada 35(3):341–364Google Scholar
  88. Vollertsen J, Åstebøl SO, Coward JE, Fageraas T, Nielsen AH, Hvitved-Jacobsen T (2009) Performance and modelling of a highway wet detention pond designed for cold climate. Water Qual Res J Canada 44(3):253–262Google Scholar
  89. Wang CY, Sample DJ (2013) Assessing floating treatment wetlands nutrient removal performance through a first order kinetics model and statistical inference. Ecol Eng 61(A):292–302Google Scholar
  90. Wang CY, Sample DJ, Bell C (2014) Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds. Sci Total Environ 499(1):384–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Winston RJ, Hunt WF, Kennedy SG, Wright JD, Lauffer MS (2012) Field evaluation of storm-water control measures for highway runoff treatment. J Environ Eng 138(1):101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Winston RJ, Hunt WF, Kennedy SG, Merriman LS, Chandler J, Brown D (2013) Evaluation of floating treatment wetlands as retrofits to existing stormwater retention ponds. Ecol Eng 54:254–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Xanthopoulos C (1990) Niederschlagsbedingter Schmutzstoffeintrag in Kanalsysteme – erneute Bilanzierung aufgrund weitergehender Erfassung von Ereignissen (Precipitation driven pollution loads in sewer systems). In: Schadstoffe im Regenabfluß aus städtischen Gebieten. Schriftenreihe des Institutes für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft 58:115–146, University of Karlsruhe, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  94. Yi QT, Lu WW, Yu JG, Kim YC (2010) Characteristics of nutrient retention in a stormwater wetland during dry and wet days. Water Sci Technol 61(6):1535–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katharina Tondera
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Godecke-Tobias Blecken
    • 3
  • Florent Chazarenc
    • 4
  • Terry Lucke
    • 2
  • Chris C. Tanner
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental EngineeringRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.Stormwater Research GroupUniversity of the Sunshine CoastMaroochydoreAustralia
  3. 3.Urban Water EngineeringLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden
  4. 4.Department of Energy Systems and EnvironmentInstitut Mines Telecom AtlantiqueNantes cedex 3France
  5. 5.National Institute of Water and Atmospheric ResearchHamiltonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations