Advertisement

Caves and Sinkholes in Florida

  • Sam Upchurch
  • Thomas M. Scott
  • Michael C. Alfieri
  • Beth Fratesi
  • Thomas L. Dobecki
Chapter
Part of the Cave and Karst Systems of the World book series (CAKASYWO)

Abstract

Types of sinkholes in Florida include (1) solution sinkholes formed by dissolution of shallow limestone; (2) suffosion sinkholes where non-cohesive sediments ravel directly into limestone voids; (3) rock-collapse sinkholes formed by collapse of cave roofs; (4) cenote, deep water-filled rock-collapse sinkholes; (5) cover-collapse sinkholes formed by the rapid failure of sand and clay over a limestone void; (6) cover-subsidence sinkholes formed by slow dissolution of the upper surface of a carbonate-rich sediment; and (7) alluvial, or relict, sinkholes.

Other surface depressions include those similar to “Carolina bays” with hybrid karst and aeolian origins, and pseudokarst depressions formed by differential compaction in marine terrace sands, pedogenesis, and other non-karst processes. Karst windows are sinkholes formed by rock or cover collapse and that expose the water-table aquifer. Uvalas are coalescent sinkholes with complex outlines and multiple sinkholes. Although they do not have steep walls, Florida’s poljes are uvalas that have been filled by lacustrine or paludal sediments. Collapsed caves occur in traces as a string of karst windows or a wet linear depression.

Sinkhole risk has been evaluated several times in Florida; while sources of elevated risk are known, there is no way to predict where or when sinkholes will develop. Risks include injury, structural damage, flooding, and aquifer contamination.

Both vadose and phreatic, epigenetic caves are associated with current and former water table positions. Because of the high water table or potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer (UFA), air-filled, vadose caves are mostly found on ridges and topographically high areas. Deep phreatic caves near the coasts may be hypogenetic, caused by mixing in freshwater/saltwater transition zones.

Vadose caves are commonly decorated with secondary speleothems, such as stalactites, flowstone, soda straws, and calcite crystals. Phreatic caves rarely contain secondary cave formations. Deposition of speleothems can be caused by evaporation, CO2 degassing, and chemical oversaturation of water with respect to calcite. Analyses of stalactites from caves in central Florida reveal a record of deposition correlated to major climatic patterns extending to the late Pleistocene.

Keywords

Sinkholes Caves Cover-collapse sinkholes Cover-subsidence sinkholes Vadose speleogenesis Phreatic speleogenesis 

References

  1. Alfieri MC Upchurch SB Dobecki TL (2018) Photolinears, fractures, and fallacies: A post hoc study of photolinears, Hillsborough County, Florida. Proceedings, 15th Multidiscip Conf on Sinkholes and Engineering and Environ Impacts of Karst, Shepherdstown, West VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Altschuler ZS Jaffe EB Dwornik E (1951) The stratigraphy of the upper part of the Bone Valley Formation and its relation to the leached zone. US Geol Surv Trace Elements Memo Rept 237Google Scholar
  3. Altschuler ZS Jaffe EB Cuttitta F (1956) The aluminum phosphate zone of the Bone Valley Formation, Florida, and its uranium deposits. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 300Google Scholar
  4. Altschuler ZS Dwornik EJ Kramer H (1963) Transformation of montmorillonite to kaolinite during weathering. Science, 141(3576):148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagnold RA (1956) The flow of cohesionless grains in fluids. Royal Soc London, Philosoph Trans, Series A, 249:235–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balfour RC III (2002) In search of the Aucilla. Valdosta, Georgia, Colson Printing CoGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck BF (1991) On calculating the risk of sinkhole collapse. Proc Appalachian Karst Symp, Nat Speleol Soc, pp. 231–236Google Scholar
  8. Beck BF Sayed S (1991) The sinkhole hazard in Pinellas County: A geologic summary for planning purposes. Fla Sinkhole Res Inst Report 90-91-1Google Scholar
  9. Beck BF Sinclair WC (1986) Sinkholes in Florida: An introduction. Orlando, Fla Sinkhole Res Inst Report 85-86-4Google Scholar
  10. Bengtsson TO (1987) The hydrologic effects from intense ground-water pumpage in east-central Hillsborough County, Florida. In: Beck BF Wilson WL (eds.), Karst hydrogeology: Engineering and environmental applications, Proc Second Multidis Conf on Sinkholes and the environmental impacts of karst, Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, pp. 109–114Google Scholar
  11. Blatt H Middleton G Murray R (1972) Origin of sedimentary rocks. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-HallGoogle Scholar
  12. Bloomberg D Upchurch SB Hayden ML Williams RC (1988) Cone-penetrometer exploration of sinkholes: Stratigraphy and soil properties. Environ Geol and Water Sci 12:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bögli A (1980) Karst hydrology and physical speleology. Berlin, Springer-VerlagCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bolton MD (1986) The strength and dilatancy of sands. Géotechnique, 36(1):65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonacci O (2004) Poljes. In: Gunn J (ed.), Encyclopedia of Caves and Science. New York, Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 599–600Google Scholar
  16. Bradner LA (1991) Water quality in the upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of drainage wells, Orlando, Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Report 90-4175Google Scholar
  17. Bradner LA (1996) Estimation of recharge through selected drainage wells and potential effects from well closure, Orange County, Florida. US Geol Surv Open-File Rept 96-316Google Scholar
  18. Brinkman R Wilson K Elko N Seale LD Florea LJ (2007a) Sinkhole distribution based on pre-development mapping in urbanized Pinellas County, Florida, USA. In: Parise M Gunn J (eds.), Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas: Recognition, analysis and mitigation, Geol Soc London, Sp Pub 279:5–11Google Scholar
  19. Brinkman R Parise M Dye D (2007b) Sinkhole distribution in a rapidly developing urban environment: Hillsborough County, Tampa Bay area, Florida. Eng Geol 99:169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brooks MJ Taylor BE Stone PA Gardner LR (2001) Pleistocene encroachment on the Wateree River sand sheet into Big Bay on the middle Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Southeast Geol 40(4):241–257Google Scholar
  21. Butt PL Morris TL Skiles WC (2007) Swallet/resurgence relationships on the lower Santa Fe River, Florida. Contract report prepared by Karst Environmental Services for Water Resource Associates, Tampa, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  22. Cathcart JB (1963a) Economic geology of the Chicora Quadrangle, Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1962-AGoogle Scholar
  23. Cathcart JB (1963b) Economic geology of the Keysville Quadrangle, Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1128Google Scholar
  24. Cathcart JB (1963c) Economic geology of the Plant City Quadrangle, Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1142-DGoogle Scholar
  25. Cathcart JB (1964) Economic geology of the Lakeland Quadrangle, Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1962-GGoogle Scholar
  26. Cathcart JB (1966) Economic geology of the Fort Meade Quadrangle, Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1207Google Scholar
  27. Chave KE Schmalz RF (1966) Carbonate-seawater interactions. Geochim et Cosmochim Acta 30:1037-1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clausen CJ Cohen AD Emiliani C Holman JA Stipp JJ (1979) Little Salt Spring, Florida; a unique underwater site. Science 203: 609–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Champion KM Upchurch SB Schneider JC (2005) Ground water chemistry and origin of water discharging from Troy Spring, Lafayette County, Florida. Live Oak, Florida, Suwannee River Water Mgt DistGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen J Thomas G Upchurch SB (1995a) Groundwater quality reflects karst development: A case study in central-west Florida. In: Beck BF (ed.), Karst geohazards: Engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane, Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, pp. 103–109.Google Scholar
  31. Chen J Thomas G Upchurch SB (1995b) A spatial-correlation model for assessment of large-area sinkhole and water quality data. In: Beck BF (ed.), Karst geohazards: Engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane, Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, pp. 111–116.Google Scholar
  32. Cooke CW (1954) Carolina bays and the shapes of eddies. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 254-I, pp. 195–206Google Scholar
  33. Culshaw MG Waltham AC (1987) Natural and artificial cavities as ground engineering hazards. Quart Jour Eng Geol 20:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cunningham KJ Kluesner JW Westcott RL Robinson E Walker C Khan SA (2017) Sequence stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, and seismic structures of the lower intermediate confining unit and most of the Floridan aquifer system, Broward County, Florida. US Geol Surv Sci Invest Rept 2017-5109Google Scholar
  35. Curl RL (1974) Deducing flow velocity in cave conduits from scallops. Nat Speleo Soc Bull 36:1–5Google Scholar
  36. De Rooj GH Cho H (1999) Modeling solute leaching during fingered flow by integrating and expanding various theoretical and empirical concepts. Jour des Sciences Hydrologiques 44(3):447–465Google Scholar
  37. Dobecki TL Upchurch SB (2010) A multi-level approach to site characterization - C.W. Bill Young Regional Reservoir, Hillsborough County, Florida. Proc Environ and Eng Geophy Soc, Appl Geophy Eng and Enviro Prob (SAGEEP)Google Scholar
  38. Dunbar JS (2016) Paleoindian societies of the coastal southeast. Gainesville, Univ Press FlaGoogle Scholar
  39. Exley S (1994). Caverns measureless to man. Dayton, Ohio, Cave BooksGoogle Scholar
  40. Eyton JR Parkhurst JI (1975) A re-Evaluation of the extraterrestrial origin of the Carolina bays. Univ Ill at Urbana-Champaign, Occ Pubs Dep Geog Paper Number 9Google Scholar
  41. Field MS (2002a) A lexicon of cave and karst terminology with special reference to environmental karst hydrology. US Environ Prot Agency EPA/600/R-02/003Google Scholar
  42. Florea LJ (2006) The karst of west-central Florida. Ph.D. Diss, Univ South FlaGoogle Scholar
  43. Florea LJ (ed.) (2008a). Caves and Karst of Florida: A guidebook for the 2008 National Convention of the National Speleological Society. Huntsville, AL, Nat Speleol SocGoogle Scholar
  44. Florea LJ (2008b) Geology and hydrology of karst in west-central Florida and north-central Florida. In: Florea LJ (ed.), Caves and karst of Florida: A guidebook for the 2008 National Convention of the National Speleological Society. Huntsville, AL, Nat Speleol Soc, pp. 225–239Google Scholar
  45. Florea LJ (2009) Caves and karst of west-central Florida. In: Palmer AN Palmer MV (eds.), Caves and karst of the USA. Huntsville, AL, Nat Speleol Soc, pp. 189–196Google Scholar
  46. Florea LJ Vacher HL (2006a) Cave levels, marine terraces, paleoshorelines, and the water table in peninsular Florida. In: Onac BP Tamas T Constantin S Persoiu A (eds.), Archives of climate change, Karst Waters Inst Special Pub 10, pp. 188–192Google Scholar
  47. Florea LJ Vacher HL (2006b) Morphologic features of conduits and aquifer response in the unconfined Floridan aquifer system, west central Florida. The 12th Symp Geol Bahamas and other Carbonate Regions, pp. 32–44Google Scholar
  48. Florea LJ Vacher HL (2007) Eogenetic karst hydrology: Insights from the 2004 hurricanes, peninsular Florida. Ground Water, 45(4):439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Florea LJ Vacher HL Donahue B Naar D (2007) Quaternary cave levels in peninsular Florida. Quat Sci Rev 26:1344-1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Florida Geological Survey (2013) Subsidence Incident Reports. Online subsidence incident report database maintained by the Florida Geological Survey, Accessed 11-4-13 at http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/gisdatamaps/SIRs_database.htm.
  51. Field MS (2002b) A lexicon of cave and karst terminology with special reference to environmental karst hydrology. US Environ Prot Agy, EPA/600/R-02/003Google Scholar
  52. Ford DC Williams PW (1989) Karst geomorphology and hydrology. New York, John Wiley & SonsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gainesville Sun (2011) Sinkhole swallows, kills FL well driller. News article accessed 1/26/2014 at http://www.abcactionnews.com/dpp/news/state/sinkhole-swallows,-kills-fl-well-driller
  54. German ER (1989) Quantity and quality of stormwater runoff recharged to the Floridan aquifer system through two drainage wells in the Orlando, Florida, area. US Geol Surv Water Sup Pap 2344Google Scholar
  55. German ER Bradner LA (1989) Artificial recharge to the Floridan aquifer system, Orlando area, Central Florida. Proc Int Symp Artificial Recharge, Amer Soc Civil Eng, pp. 360–366Google Scholar
  56. Glass RJ Steenhuis TS Parlange JY (1988) Wetting front instability as a rapid and far-reaching hydrologic process in the vadose zone. Jour Contam Hydrol 3:207–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Glass RJ Steenhuis TS Parlange JY (1989) Wetting front instability: 2. Experimental determination of relationships between system parameters and two-dimensional unstable flow field behavior in initially dry porous media. Water Resou Res 25:1195–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Grant JA Brooks MJ Taylor BE (1998) New constraints on the evolution of Carolina bays from ground-penetrating radar. Geomorph 22:325–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gulden B Coke J (2015) World longest underwater caves. List accessed 11/1/2015 at http://www.caverbob.com/uwcaves.htm
  60. Gulley, J., 2013. On the origin of Florida’s underwater caves. Underwater Speleology, 40(4):10–11, 34Google Scholar
  61. Gulley JD Florea LJ (2016) Caves as paleo-water table indicators in the unconfined Upper Floridan aquifer. Florida Scientist, 79(4):239–256Google Scholar
  62. Gulley JD Martin JB Brown A (2016) Organic carbon inputs, common ions, and degassing: Rethinking mixing dissolution in coastal eogenetic carbonate aquifers. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 41:2098–2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gulley JD Martin JB Moore PE Brown A Spellman PD Ezell J (2015) Heterogeneous distributions of CO2 may be more important for dissolution and karstification than mixing dissolution. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 40:1057–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gulley JD Martin JB Moore PJ Murphy J (2013) Formation of phreatic caves in an eogenetic karst aquifer by CO2 enrichment at lower water tables and subsequent flooding by sea level rise. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 38:1210–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gulley JD Martin JB Screaton EJ Moore PJ (2011) River reversals into karst springs: A model for cave enlargement in eogenetic karst aquifers. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 123(3/4):457–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gulley JD Polk JS (2017) Hypogene karst influences in the upper Floridan aquifer. In: Klimchouk AB Palmer AN Waela JD Auler AS Audra P (eds.), Hypogene karst regions and caves of the world, Springer Inter Publ, Ch. 50, pp. 745–755Google Scholar
  67. Halladay WR (2007) Pseudokarst in the 21st century. Jour Cave and Karst Stud 69(1):103–113Google Scholar
  68. Hill CA Forti P (1997) Cave minerals of the world. Huntsville, Alabama, Nat Spel Soc, 2nd EdGoogle Scholar
  69. Holtz RD Kovacs WD (1981) An introduction to geotechnical engineering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  70. Hughes GH (1967) Analysis of the water-level fluctuations of Lake Jackson near Tallahassee, Florida. Fla Div Geol Rept Invest 48Google Scholar
  71. Hull RW Yurewicz MC (1979) Quality of storm runoff to drainage wells in Live Oak, Florida, April 4, 1979. US Geol Surv Open-File Rept 79-1073Google Scholar
  72. Isphording WC (1963) A study of the heavy minerals from the Hawthorn Formation and overlying sands exposed at the Devil’s Millhopper, Alachua County, Florida, M.S. thesis, Gainesville, Univ FlaGoogle Scholar
  73. Isphording WC (1984) Sand craters in Gulf Coastal Plain clastic sediments: An extension of the Carolina bays phenomenon? Geol Soc Amer Abst with Programs 16(3):148Google Scholar
  74. Ivester AH Brooks MJ Taylor BE (2007) Sedimentology and ages of Carolina bay sand rims. Geol Soc Amer Abst with Programs 39(2):5Google Scholar
  75. Jammal & Associates, Inc. (1982) The Winter Park sinkhole: A report of the investigation, findings, evaluation and recommendations. Contract report prepared for the City Commission, City of Winter Park, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  76. Jammal SE (1984a) A self-guided field trip to the Winter Park sinkhole. Orlando, Fl Sinkhole Res Inst Report No. 84-85-3Google Scholar
  77. Jammal SE (1984b) Maturation of the Winter Park sinkhole. In: Beck BF (ed.), Sinkholes: Their geology, engineering & environmental impact, Rotterdam, B.A. Balkema, pp. 363–369Google Scholar
  78. Jammal SE Casper JW (2009) The Winter Park sinkhole then and now. Jour Fla Eng Soc, May 2009 issue, pp. 19–20Google Scholar
  79. Jennings JN (1985) Karst geomorphology. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers, 2nd Ed.Google Scholar
  80. Jones GW Upchurch SB (1993) Origin of nutrients in ground-water discharging from the Lithia and Buckhorn Springs. Brooksville, Southwest Fla Water Mgt DistGoogle Scholar
  81. Kantrowitz IH Woodham WM (1995) Efficiency of a stormwater detention pond in reducing loads of chemical and physical constituents in urban streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Rept 94-4217Google Scholar
  82. Katz BG (1993) Biochemical and hydrological processes controlling the transport and fate of 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) in soil and ground water, central Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Sup Pap 2402Google Scholar
  83. Ketelle RH Newton JG Tanner JM (1988) Karst subsidence in east Tennessee. In: Proc Second Conf Environ Prob in Karst Terranes and Their Solutions Conf, Nashville, Tennessee, Dublin, OH, Nat Water Well Assoc, pp. 51–65Google Scholar
  84. Kimrey JO (1978) Preliminary appraisal of the geohydrologic aspects of drainage wells, Orlando area, central Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Rept 78-37Google Scholar
  85. Kimrey JO Fayard LD (1984) Geohydrologic reconnaissance of drainage wells in Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Rept 84-4021Google Scholar
  86. Krause A (2008) Briar Cave. In: Florea LJ (ed.), Caves and karst of Florida: A guidebook for the 2008 National Convention of the National Speleological Society. Huntsville, AL, Nat Speleol Soc pp. 71–74Google Scholar
  87. Krauss, A, 2008. Florida’s longest and deepest caves. In: Florea LJ (ed.), Caves and karst of Florida: A guidebook for the 2008 National Convention of the National Speleological Society. Huntsville, AL, Nat Speleol Soc pp. 43–44Google Scholar
  88. Krawiec W (1963) Solution pits and solution breccias of the Florida Keys. Master’s thesis, Univ Rochester (conclusions quoted in Multer 1977)Google Scholar
  89. Kromhout C Baker AE Albritton CK Scott TM Cichon JR Miller SR (2017) The favorability of Florida’s geology to sinkhole formation. Fla Geol Surv rept.Google Scholar
  90. Lane E (1986) Karst of Florida. Fla Geol Surv Sp Pub 29Google Scholar
  91. Lawrence FW Upchurch SB (1976) Identification of geochemical patterns in ground water by numerical analysis. In: Zaleem EA (ed.), Advances in Groundwater Hydrology, Middleberg, VA, Amer Water Resour Assoc, pp. 199–214Google Scholar
  92. Lawn A (compiler) (2014) Karst hydrogeology of the upper Suwannee River basin, Alapaha River area, Hamilton County, Florida. Southeast Geol Soc Guidebook No. 63Google Scholar
  93. Legrand HE (1953) Streamlining of the Carolina bays. Jour Geol 61(3):263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. May JH Warne AG (2004) Hydrogeologic and geochemical factors required for the development of Carolina bays along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, coastal plain, USA. Environ & Eng Geosci 5(3):261–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McClellan GH (1962) Identification of clay minerals from the Hawthorn Formation, Devil’s Millhopper, Alachua County, Florida. M.S. thesis, Gainesville, Univ FlaGoogle Scholar
  96. McGlynn S (2006) Leon County lakes: Lake Jackson watershed. Tallahassee, FL McGlynn Labs, Inc., accessed 9/25/2013 at http://www.mcglynnlabs.com/LakeJackson.pdf
  97. Metcalf SF Hall LE (1984) Sinkhole collapse induced by groundwater pumpage for freeze protection irrigation near Dover, Florida, January, 1997. In: Beck BF (ed.), Sinkholes: Their geology, engineering, and environmental impact. Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, pp. 3–10Google Scholar
  98. Monroe WH (1970) A glossary of karst terminology. US Geol Surv Water-Sup Pap 1899-KGoogle Scholar
  99. Newton JG (1987) Development of sinkhole resulting from man’s activities in the eastern United States. US Geol Surv Circ 968Google Scholar
  100. Onac BP Pace-Graczyk K Atudirei V (2008) Stable isotope study of precipitation and cave drip water in Florida (USA): Implications for speleothem-based paleoclimate studies. Isotopes in Environ and Health Stud 44(2):149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Parker GG (1955) Geomorphology. In: Parker GG Ferguson GE Love SK and others. Water resources of southeastern Florida, US Geol Surv Water Sup Pap 1255, pp. 127–155Google Scholar
  102. Pendexter WS (1996) The influence of media heterogenieties on the development of flow fingers. Ph.D. dissertation, Tallahassee, FL, Fla State UnivGoogle Scholar
  103. Pendexter WS Furbish DJ (1991) Development of a heterogeneous moisture distribution and its influence on the evolution of preferred pathways of flow in an unsaturated sand soil. Proc Nat Symp on Preferential Flow, Chicago, pp. 104–112Google Scholar
  104. Perkins RD (1977) Part II, Depositional framework of Pleistocene rocks in south Florida. In: Enos P Perkins RD (eds.), Quaternary sedimentation in south Florida, Geol Soc Amer Memoir 147, p. 131–198Google Scholar
  105. Prouty WF (1935) “Carolina bays” and elliptical lake basins, Jour Geol 43(2):200–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Prouty WF (1952) Carolina bays and their origin. Bull Geol Soc Amer 63(2):167–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Purdy BA (1991) The art and archaeology of Florida’s wetlands. Boca Raton, Telford Press Series, CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  108. Purdy BA (2008) Florida’s people during the last ice age. Gainesville, Univ Press FlaGoogle Scholar
  109. Schalles JF Sharitz RR Gibbons JW Leversee GJ Knox JN (1989) Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. Savannah River Plant, Nat Environ Res Park, Aiken, SCGoogle Scholar
  110. Scheidt J Lerche I Paleologos E (2005) Environmental and economic risks from sinkholes in west-central Florida. Environ Geosci 12:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schmidt W Scott TM (1984) Florida karst; its relationship to geologic structure and stratigraphy. In: Beck BF (ed.), Sinkholes: Their geology, engineering and environmental impact. Proc First Multidisc Conf on Sinkholes, Orlando, Florida, pp. 11–16Google Scholar
  112. Scott TM (1988) The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group (Miocene) of Florida. Fla Geol Sur Bull 59Google Scholar
  113. Scott TM (2017a) Case study I: Triggered sinkholes – Tropical Storm Debby in 2012. In: Kromhout C Baker AE Albritton CK Scott TM Cichon JR Miller SR, The favorability of Florida’s geology to sinkhole formation. Fla Geol Surv rept., Appendix IIGoogle Scholar
  114. Scott TM (2017b) Case study II: Triggered sinkholes – pumping-related freeze protection, Hillsborough County, January 2010. In: Kromhout C Baker AE Albritton CK Scott TM Cichon JR Miller SR, The favorability of Florida’s geology to sinkhole formation. Fla Geol Surv Rept., Appendix IIIGoogle Scholar
  115. Scott TM Means GH Meegan RP Means RC Upchurch SB Copeland RE Jones J Roberts T Willet A (2004) Springs of Florida. Fla Geol Sur Bull 66Google Scholar
  116. Sinclair WC Stewart JW (1985) Sinkhole type, development, and distribution in Florida. Fla Bur Geol Map Series 110Google Scholar
  117. Sinclair WC Stewart JW Knutilla RL Gilboy AE Miller RL (1985) Types, features, and occurrence of sinkholes in the karst of west-central Florida. US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Rept 85-4126Google Scholar
  118. Soto L (2005) Reconstruction of late Holocene precipitation for central Florida as derived from isotopes in speleothems. Master’s thesis, Tampa, Univ South FlaGoogle Scholar
  119. Southeastern Geological Society (1981) Karst hydrology and Miocene geology of the upper Suwannee River Basin, Hamilton County, Florida. Tallahassee, Southeast Geol Soc GuidebookGoogle Scholar
  120. Sowers GF (1996) Building on sinkholes. Amer Soc Civil EngGoogle Scholar
  121. Sweeting MM (1973) Karst landforms. London, McMillan PressGoogle Scholar
  122. Sweeting MM (1981) Karst geomorphology. Stroudsburg, PA, Hutchinson Ross Publ Co, Benchmark Paps in Geology, Vol. 59.Google Scholar
  123. Tampa Bay Times (2013) Seffner sinkhole 911 call: “Bedroom floor just collapsed.” Accessed 3/2/2013 at http://www.tampabay.com/news/publicsafety/sinkhole-swallows-part-of-seffner-home.r.
  124. Taylor GF (1993) Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida, US Geol Surv Water-Resour Invest Rept 93-4061Google Scholar
  125. Terzaghi K (1925) Principles of soil mechanics. Eng News Record, 95:742–746, 796–800, 832–836, 874–878Google Scholar
  126. Terzaghi K Peck RB (1948) Soil mechanics in engineering practice. New York, John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  127. Tihansky AB (1999) Sinkholes, west-central Florida: A link between surface water and ground water. In: Galloway D Jones DR Ingebritsen SE (eds.), Land subsidence in the United States, US Geol Surv Circ 1182, pp. 121–141Google Scholar
  128. Upchurch SB (2015) Determination of the relationship of nitrate to discharge and flow systems in north Florida springs. In: Doctor DH Land L Stephenson JB (eds.), Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, Proc 14th Multidisc Conf, Rochester, MN, Nat Cave Karst Res Inst Symp 5, pp. 347–354Google Scholar
  129. Upchurch SB (2016) The nexus of Florida’s groundwater resources and karst processes. Fla Scientist 79(4):208–219Google Scholar
  130. Upchurch SB (2017) Hypogene speleogenesis on the Floridan Platform, U.S.A. In: Klimchouk AB Palmer AN Waela JD Auler AS Audra P (eds.), Hypogene karst regions and caves of the world, Springer International Publ, Ch. 49, pp.735–744Google Scholar
  131. Upchurch SB Champion KM Schneider JC (2004) Geostatistical analysis of water-level and water-quality data for the Troy Spring springshed, Suwannee County, Florida. Live Oak, FL, Suwannee River Water Management DistrictGoogle Scholar
  132. Upchurch SB Littlefield JR Jr. (1987) Evaluation of data for sinkhole-development risk models. In: Beck BF Wilson WL (eds.), Karst hydrogeology: Engineering and environmental applications, Rotterdam, B.A. Balkema, pp. 359–364Google Scholar
  133. Upchurch SB Littlefield JR Jr. (1988) Evaluation of data for sinkhole-development risk models. Environ Geol and Water Sci 12:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Upchurch SB Dobecki TL Daigle DM (1999) Geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical investigation. In: Law Engineering Services and others, Geotechnical Site Characterization Report – Tampa Bay Regional Reservoir, Volume I, Section 3Google Scholar
  135. Upchurch SB Dobecki TL Scott TM Meiggs SH Fratesi SE Alfieri MC (2013) Development of sinkholes in a thickly covered karst terrane. Proc Thirteenth Multidisc Conf on Sinkholes and the Eng and Environ Impacts of Karst, Carlsbad, NM, Nat Cave and Karst Res Inst, pp. 273–277Google Scholar
  136. Upchurch SB Randazzo AF (1997) Environmental geology of Florida. In: Randazzo AF Smith DL (eds.), Geology of Florida, Gainesville, Univ Press of Fla, Ch 13, pp. 217–249Google Scholar
  137. Upchurch SB Scott TM Alfieri MC Dobecki TL (2015) Shallow depressions in the Florida coastal plain: Karst and pseudokarst. In: Doctor DH Land L Stephenson JB (eds.), Sinkholes and the engineering and environmental impacts of karst, Proc 14th Multidisc Conf, Carlsbad, NM, Nat Cave and Karst Res Inst Symp 5, pp. 231–240Google Scholar
  138. Van Beynen PE Soto L Polk J (2008) Variable calcite deposition rates as proxy for paleo-precipitation determination as derived from speleothems in central Florida, U.S.A. Jour Cave and Karst Stud 70(1):25–34Google Scholar
  139. Van Kauwenbergh SJ Cathcart JB McClellan GH (1990) Mineralogy and alteration of the phosphate deposits of Florida. US Geol Surv Bull 1914Google Scholar
  140. Wang JW (2005) The stress-strain and strength characteristics of Portaway Sand. Ph.D. dissert, Univ Nottingham. (Accessed 9/3/2013 at http://etheses.nottingham.ac.uk/170/1/Thesis_final_PDF.pdf)
  141. Weber KA (1981) Characterization of storm water runoff by numerical analysis. Master’s thesis, Univ South FlGoogle Scholar
  142. Wells BW Boyce SG (1953) Carolina bays: Additional data on their origin, and history. Jour Mitchell Soc 69(2):119–141Google Scholar
  143. White WA (1970) The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula. Fla Geol Surv Bull 51Google Scholar
  144. White WB (1988) Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains. New York, Oxford Univ PressGoogle Scholar
  145. Williams P (2004) Dolines. In: Gunn J (ed.), Encyclopedia of caves and karst science. New York, Fitzroy Dearborn (Taylor & Francis Books, Inc.), pp. 304–310Google Scholar
  146. Willoughby RH (2007) Carolina bays in Jordan Quadrangle, Clarendon County, central South Carolina are relict survivors from development of sinkholes due to karstic solution (abs), Geol Soc Amer Abst with Prog 39(2), p. 5Google Scholar
  147. Wilson WL (1995) Sinkhole and buried sinkhole densities and new sinkhole frequencies in karsts of northwest peninsular Florida. In: Beck BF (ed.), Karst geohazards, Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, pp. 79–90Google Scholar
  148. Wilson WL Beck BF (1992) Hydrogeologic factors affecting new sinkhole development in the Orlando area, Florida. Ground Water 30:918–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wilson WL McDonald KM (1988) Frequency of sinkhole development in the vicinity of the Southwest Landfill, Alachua County, Florida. Fla Sinkhole Res Inst Rept 87-88-2Google Scholar
  150. Wilson WL McDonald KM Barfus BL Beck BF (1987) Hydrogeologic factors associated with recent sinkhole development in the Orlando area. Fla Sinkhole Res Inst Rept 87-88-4Google Scholar
  151. Wright AP (1974) Environmental geology and hydrology, Tampa area, Florida. Fla Bur Geol Sp Pub 19Google Scholar
  152. Zwanka W (2005) Delineation of the Troy Spring basin using ground-water levels. In: Copeland R (comp), Geomorphic influence of scarps in the Suwannee Basin, Southeastern Geol Soc Field Trip Guidebook 44, p. 53Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam Upchurch
    • 1
  • Thomas M. Scott
    • 2
  • Michael C. Alfieri
    • 3
  • Beth Fratesi
    • 4
  • Thomas L. Dobecki
    • 5
  1. 1.SDII Global CorporationLand O’ LakesUSA
  2. 2.SDII Global CorporationHavanaUSA
  3. 3.Water Resource Associates, LLCTampaUSA
  4. 4.Southwest Research InstituteSan AntonioUSA
  5. 5.Dobecki Geosciences, LLCMishawakaUSA

Personalised recommendations