Advertisement

Steroid-Modified Dermatophytosis: A Potential Epidemic in Developing Countries

  • Shyam B. Verma
  • Anupam Das
Chapter

Abstract

Superficial dermatophytoses constitute a large proportion of skin diseases seen by dermatologists in tropical countries. Their prevalence in hot climate zones has always been high since hot and humid weather favors their acquisition and perpetuation. However, in the Indian subcontinent superficial dermatophytoses have become infamous for being the commonest infective dermatosis.

References

  1. 1.
    Verma S, Madhu R. The great Indian epidemic of superficial dermatophytosis: an appraisal. Indian J Dermatol. 2017;62:227–36.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Verma S. Topical corticosteroid modified superficial dermatophytosis: morphological patterns. In: Lahiri K, editor. A treatise on topical corticosteroids in dermatology. Singapore: Springer; 2017. p. 151–8.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaaman T. The clinical significance of cutaneous reactions to trichophyton in dermatophytosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 1978;58:139–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Piñeiro L, Larruskain J, Idigoras P, et al. Trichophyton rubrum syndrome: the tip of the iceberg and a preventable outcome. Mycoses. 2010;53:186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dahl MV, Grando SA. Chronic dermatophytosis: what is special about Trichophyton rubrum? Adv Dermatol. 1994;9:97–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vermout S, Tabart J, Baldo A, et al. Pathogenesis of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia. 2008;166:267–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    de Sousa Mda G, Santana GB, Criado PR, et al. Chronic widespread dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: a syndrome associated with a Trichophyton-specific functional defect of phagocytes. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oliveira CB, Vasconcellos C, Sakai-Valente NY, et al. Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 expression of keratinocytes from patients with localized and disseminated dermatophytosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2015;57:57–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Verma SB. Sales, status, prescriptions and regulatory problems with topical steroids in India. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2014;80:201–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Verma SB. Topical steroid misuse in India is harmful and out of control. BMJ. 2015;351:h6079.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dogra S, Uprety S. The menace of chronic and recurrent dermatophytosis in India: is the problem deeper than we perceive? Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7:73–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Verma SB, Vasani R. Male genital dermatophytosis—clinical features and the effects of the misuse of topical steroids and steroid combinations—an alarming problem in India. Mycoses. 2016;59:606–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rathi SK, D’Souza P. Rational and ethical use of topical corticosteroids based on safety and efficacy. Indian J Dermatol. 2012;57:251–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumar S, Goyal A, Gupta YK. Abuse of topical corticosteroids in India: concerns and the way forward. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2016;7:7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Verma S, Hay RJ. Topical steroid-induced tinea pseudoimbricata: a striking form of tinea incognito. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54:e192–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lim SP, Smith AG. “Tinea pseudoimbricata”: tinea corporis in a renal transplant recipient mimicking the concentric rings of tinea imbricata. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003;28:332–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Verma SB. A closer look at the term ‘Tinea incognito’—a factual as well as grammatical inaccuracy. Indian J Dermatol. 2017;62:219.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Agarwal US, Mathur D, Mathur D, et al. Ear sign. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2014;5:105–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shyam B. Verma
    • 1
  • Anupam Das
    • 2
  1. 1.Nirvana Skin ClinicVadodaraIndia
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyKPC Medical College and HospitalKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations