Advertisement

Disorders of the Scalp and Hair

  • Marwa Abdallah
  • Constantin E. Orfanos
Chapter

Abstract

Human hair my show different shapes: The hair shaft may be straight in Asians or curly in Negroid populations, in contrast to the straight and wavy hair of Caucasians. The short curly hair of black-skinned individuals grows slower and has a larger diameter than in whites. The hair shaft is rather irregular, often elliptically flattened; trichonodosis and trichoptilosis are often seen; and pair grouping occurs. The terminal follicles are large, partly curved, with a golf club-shaped bulb. Nevertheless, there are broad variations in number, size, and shape of the hair and the hair follicles between the different ethnics, tribes, and families. Some racial groups have clearly sparse beard and axillary hair; some others are more hypertrichotic.

References

  1. 1.
    Lindsey SF, Tosti A. Ethnic hair disorders. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2015;47:139–49.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Semble AL, McMichael AJ. Hair loss in patients with skin of color. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2015;34:81–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fu JM, Price VH. Approach to hair loss in women of color. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2009;28:109–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Madu P, Kundu RV. Follicular and scarring disorders in skin of color: presentation and management. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2014;15:307–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Paik JH, Yoon JB, Sim WY, et al. The prevalence and types of androgenetic alopecia in Korean men and women. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145:95–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gan DC, Sinclair RD. Prevalence of male and female pattern hair loss in Maryborough. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2005;10:184–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xu F, Sheng YY, Mu ZL, et al. Prevalence and types of androgenetic alopecia in shanghai, China: a community-based study. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:629–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Birch MP, Messenger JF, Messenger AG. Hair density, hair diameter and the prevalence of female pattern hair loss. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144:297–304.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Norwood OT. Incidence of female androgenetic alopecia (female pattern alopecia). Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:53–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khumalo NP, Jessop S, Gumedze F. Hairdressing and the prevalence of scalp disease in African adults. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:981–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hillmer AM, Hanneken S, Ritzmann S, et al. Genetic variation in the human androgen receptor gene is the major determinant of common early-onset androgenetic alopecia. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;77:140–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hillmer AM, Flaquer A, Hanneken S, et al. Genome-wide scan and fine-mapping linkage study of androgenetic alopecia reveals a locus on chromosome 3q26. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:737–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhuo FL, Xu W, Wang L, et al. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms and risk for androgenetic alopecia: a meta-analysis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012;37:104–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chew EG, Tan JH, Bahta AW, et al. Differential expression between human dermal papilla cells from balding and non-balding scalps reveals new candidate genes for androgenetic alopecia. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1559–67.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nuwaihyd R, Redler S, Heilmann S. Investigation of four novel male androgenetic alopecia susceptibility loci: no association with female pattern hair. Arch Dermatol Res. 2014;306:413–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z, Schoones J. Interventions for female pattern hair loss. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. CD007628, 2016.
  17. 17.
    Blume-Peytavi U, Lönnfors S, Hillmann K, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the efficacy of a 24-week topical treatment by latanoprost 0.1% on hair growth and pigmentation in healthy volunteers with androgenetic alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;66:794–800.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eun HC, Kwon OS, Yeon JH, et al. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dutasteride 0.5 mg once daily in male patients with male pattern hair loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63:252–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gupta AK, Charrette A. The efficacy and safety of 5α-reductase inhibitors in androgenetic alopecia: a network meta-analysis and benefit-risk assessment of finasteride and dutasteride. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014;25:156–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tng VE, de Zwaan S. Hypertrichosis cubiti, a case report and literature review. Clin Case Rep. 2015;4:138–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pavone V, Testa G, Falsaperla R, et al. Syringomyelia and bone malformations in the setting of hypertrichosis cubiti (hairy elbow syndrome). J Orthop Case Rep. 2015;5:32–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Megna M, Balato N, Patruno C, et al. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015;32:252–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Slee PH, van der Waal RI, Schagen van Leeuwen JH, et al. Paraneoplastic hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita: uncommon or overlooked? Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:1087–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coronel-Pérez IM, Rodríguez-Rey EM, et al. Latanoprost in the treatment of eyelash alopecia in alopecia areata universalis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:481–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dawber RP, Rundegren J. Hypertrichosis in females applying minoxidil topical solution and in normal controls. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2003;17:271–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rampon G, Henkin C, de Souza PR, et al. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil. An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91:87–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Desai S, Mahmoud BH, Bhatia AC, et al. Paradoxical hypertrichosis after laser therapy: a review. Dermatol Surg. 2010;36:291–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Orfanos CE, Garbe C. Hypertrichose und hirsutismus. In: Eds, editor. Therapie der Hautkrankheiten. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 1414–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Farrant P. Excessive growth of hair. In: Christopher EM, Griffiths CE, et al., editors. Rook’s textbook of dermatology. 9th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2016. p. 89.64–8.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Landay M, Huang A, Azziz R. Degree of hyperinsulinemia, independent of androgen levels, is an important determinant of the severity of hirsutism in PCOS. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:643–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ferriman DM, Gallwey JD. Clinical assessment of body hair growth in women. J Clin Endocrinol. 1961;21:1440–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Escobar-Morreale HF, Carmina E, Dewailly D, et al. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of hirsutism: a consensus statement by the androgen excess and polycystic ovary syndrome society. Hum Reprod Update. 2012;18:146–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Orfanos CE, Adler YD, Zouboulis CC. The SAHA syndrome. Horm Res. 2000;54:251–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Spritzer PM, Barone CR, Oliveira FB. Hirsutism in polycystic ovary syndrome: pathophysiology and management. Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22:5603–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pasch L, He SY, Huddleston H, et al. Clinician vs self-ratings of hirsutism in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome: associations with quality of life and depression. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152:783–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hillman JK, Johnson LN, Limaye M. Black women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease compared with white women without PCOS. Fertil Steril. 2014;101:530–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wolf JE Jr, Shander D, Huber F, et al. Eflornithine HCl study group. Randomized, double-blind clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of topical eflornithine HCl 13.9% cream in the treatment of women with facial hair. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:94–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hamzavi I, Tan E, Shapiro J, et al. A randomized bilateral vehicle-controlled study of eflornithine cream combined with laser treatment versus laser treatment alone for facial hirsutism in women. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:54–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Somani N, Turvy D. Hirsutism: an evidence-based treatment update. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2014;15:247–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z. Interventions for hirsutism excluding laser and photoepilation therapy alone: abridged Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments. Br J Dermatol. 2016;175:45–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gollnick H, Orfanos CE. Alopecia areata: pathogenesis and clinical picture. In: Orfanos CE, Happle R, editors. Hair and hair diseases. Berlin: Springer; 1990. p. 529–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    de Moura LH, Duque-Estrada B, Abraham LS, et al. Dermoscopy findings of alopecia areata in an African-American patient. Patient J Dermatol Case Rep. 2008;27:52–4.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Şenel E, Doğruer Şenel S, Salmanoğlu M. Prevalence of skin diseases in civilian and military population in a Turkish military hospital in the central Black Sea region. J R Army Med Corps. 2015;161:112–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Xing L, Dai Z, Jabbari A, et al. Alopecia areata is driven by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and is reversed by JAK inhibition. Nat Med. 2014;20:1043–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Inui S, Nakajima T, Nakagawa K, et al. Clinical significance of dermoscopy in alopecia areata: analysis of 300 cases. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:688–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pelivani N, Hassan AS, Braathen LR, et al. Alopecia areata universalis elicited during treatment with adalimumab. Dermatology. 2008;216:320–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Le Bidre E, Chaby G, Martin L, et al. Alopecia areata during anti TNF-alpha therapy: nine cases. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2011;138:285–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tauber M, Buche S, Reygagne P, et al. Alopecia areata occurring during anti-TNF therapy: a national multicenter prospective study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70:1146–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Garcia Bartels N, Lee HH, Worm M, et al. Development of alopecia areata universalis in a patient receiving adalimumab. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:1654–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zschoche C, Bidier M, Hadaschik E. Alopecia areata during treatment with adalimumab: therapy with an alternative TNF-alpha inhibitor is possible. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2013;11:450–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Craiglow BG, King BA. Killing two birds with one stone: oral tofacitinib reverses alopecia universalis in a patient with plaque psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2988–90.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kennedy Crispin M, Ko JM, Craiglow BG, et al. Safety and efficacy of the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib citrate in patients with alopecia areata. JCI Insight. 2016;1:e89776.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Liu LY, Craiglow BG, King BA. Tofacitinib 2% ointment, a topical Janus kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of alopecia areata: A pilot study of 10 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;78:403–4.e1.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Craiglow BG, Tavares D, King BA. Topical ruxolitinib for the treatment of alopecia universalis. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152:490–1.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jang YH, Hong NS, Moon SY, et al. Long-term prognosis of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis: A longitudinal study with more than 10 years of follow-up: Better than reported. Dermatology. 2017;233:250–6.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tanus A, Caberlon Cruz Oliveira C, Villarreal Villareal DJ. Black women’s hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity. An Bras Dermatol. 2015;90:450–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Goerz G, Kind R, Lehmann P. Cicatricial alopecias. In: Orfanos CE, Happle R, editors. Hair and hair diseases. Berlin: Springer; 1990. p. 611–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Borovicka JH, Thomas L, Prince C, et al. Scarring alopecia: clinical and pathologic study of 54 African-American women. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48:840–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nnoruka EN. Hair loss: is there a relationship with hair care practices in Nigeria? Int J Dermatol. 2005;44(suppl 1):13–7.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Moreno-Ramírez D, Camacho-Martínez F. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a survey in 16 patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venerol. 2005;19:700–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gathers RC, Lim HW. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: past, present, and future. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:660–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Uhlenhake EE, Mehregan DM. Prospective histologic examinations in patients who practice traumatic hairstyling. Int J Dermatol. 2013;52:1506.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ye Y, Zhao Y, Gong Y, et al. Non-scarring patchy alopecia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus differs from that of alopecia areata. Lupus. 2013;22:1439–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Callender VD, McMichael AJ, Cohen GF. Medical and surgical therapies for alopecias in black women. Dermatol Ther. 2004;17:164–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and VenereologyAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.The Free University of Berlin, Medical School CharitéBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations