Advertisement

Facial Pigmentary Disorders

  • Marwa Abdallah
Chapter

Abstract

Skin hyperpigmentation results from increased number of epidermal melanocytes, increased synthesis of melanin, or both. Occasionally, deposition of melanin or other exogenous pigments in the deeper dermis causes changes of skin color. Facial pigment disorders include various dermatologic entities; they may also reflect organ dysfunction or metabolic conditions (e.g., pellagra, porphyria), result from deposition of metals (argyria, mercury intoxication), or be a side effect of chemicals and drugs. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentations of different origin may occur and overlap.

References

  1. 1.
    Chang MW. Disorders of hyperpigmentation. Chapter 67. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, editors. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2012. p. 1049–74.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khanna N, Rasool S. Facial melanoses: Indian perspective. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011;77:552–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kang WH, Yoon KH, Lee ES, et al. Melasma: histopathological characteristics in 56 Korean patients. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:228–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ortonne JP, Arellano I, Berneburg M, et al. A global survey of the role of ultraviolet radiation and hormonal influences in the development of melasma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23:1254–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Duteil L, Cardot-Leccia N, Queille-Roussel C, et al. Differences in visible light induced-pigmentation according to wavelengths: a clinical and histological study in comparison with UVB exposure. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014;27:822–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pandya AG, Hynan LS, Bhore R, et al. Reliability assessment and validation of the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and a new modified MASI scoring method. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64:78–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kanwar AJ, Dogra S, Handa S, et al. A study of 124 Indian patients with lichen planus pigmentosus. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003;28:481–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ghosh A, Coondoo A. Lichen planus pigmentosus: the controversial consensus. Indian J Dermatol. 2016;6:482–6.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pirmez R, Duque-Estrada B, Donati A, et al. Clinical and dermoscopic features of lichen planus pigmentosus in 37 patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia. Br J Dermatol. 2016;175:1387–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Al-Mutairi N, El-Khalawany M. Clinicopathological characteristics of lichen planus pigmentosus and its response to tacrolimus ointment: an open label, non-randomized, prospective study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:535–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nakayama H. Pigmented contact dermatitis and chemical depigmentation. In: Rycroft R, Menne T, Frosch P, Lepoittevin J, editors. Textbook of contact dermatitis. 3rd ed. New York: Springer; 2001. p. 319–33.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tienthavorn T, Tresukosol P, Sudtikoonaseth P. Patch testing and histopathology in Thai patients with hyperpigmentation due to erythema dyschromicum perstans, lichen planus pigmentosus, and pigmented contact dermatitis. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2014;32:185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chang SE, Kim HW, Shin JM, et al. Clinical and histological aspect of erythema dyschromicum perstans in Korea: a review of 68 cases. J Dermatol. 2015;42:1053–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vashi NA, Kundu RV. Facial hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169(suppl 3):41–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rabinovitz HS, Barnhill R. Benign melanocytic neoplasms. Chapter 115. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, editors. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2012. p. 1851–80.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rather S, Yaseen A, Mukhija M. Erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli—a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Indian J Dermatol. 2016;61:308–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Augustine M, Jayaseelan E. Erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli: relationship with keratosis pilaris. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008;74:47–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nouveau S, Agrawal D, Kohli M, et al. Skin hyperpigmentation in indian population: insights and best practice. Indian J Dermatol. 2016;61:487–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Davis EC, Callender VD. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a review of the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment options in skin of color. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2010;3:20–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lacz NL, Vafaie J, Kihiczak NI, et al. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a common but troubling condition. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:362–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kutlubay Z, Sevim A, Engin B, et al. Photodermatoses, including phototoxic and photoallergic reactions (internal and external). Clin Dermatol. 2014;32:73–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malakar S, Dhar S. Pigmentary demarcation lines over the face. Dermatology. 2000;200:85–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Somani VK, Razvi F, Sita VV. Pigmentary demarcation lines over the face. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2004;70:336–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roh MR, Chung KY. Infraorbital dark circles: definition, causes, and treatment options. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35:1163–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rajesh G, Thappa DM, Jaisankar TJ, et al. Spectrum of seborrheic keratoses in south Indians: a clinical and dermoscopic study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011;77:483–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Niang SO, Kane A, Diallo M, et al. Dermatosis papulosa nigra in Dakar, Senegal. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46(suppl 1):45–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seal AJ, Creeke PI, Dibari F, et al. Low and deficient niacin status and pellagra are endemic in postwar Angola. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:218–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wan P, Moat S, Anstey A. Pellagra: a review with emphasis on photosensitivity. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164:1188–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Levin CY, Maibach H. Exogenous ochronosis: an update on clinical features, causative agents and treatment options. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2001;2:213–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Molina-Hernandez AI, Diaz-Gonzalez JM, Saeb-Lima M, et al. Argyria after silver nitrate intake: case report and brief review of literature. Indian J Dermatol. 2015;60:520.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    García-Martínez P, López Aventín D, Segura S, et al. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy characterization of silver deposits in localized cutaneous argyria. Br J Dermatol. 2016;175:1052–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and VenereologyAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations