Advertisement

Vitiligo and Leukodermas

  • Mohamed Badawy Abdel-Naser
  • Constantin E. Orfanos
Chapter

Abstract

Although most dermatoses inducing changes of the content and distribution of melanin discoloring the skin are not life-threatening, they have a tremendous psychological and socioeconomic impact among people with skin of color, particularly in African populations with darkly pigmented or black skin. There is a plethora of genetic and/or acquired diseases associated with various types of leukoderma; postinflammatory hypo- and hyperpigmentations are most common in African populations as secondary response after various dermatoses, burns, injuries, surgical interventions, injections, and action of chemicals [1]. They are all disfiguring and cause major psychological discomfort to the patients, with vitiligo being the most prevalent cause of deep concern [2].

References

  1. 1.
    Berthe S, Faye O, Bagayogo B, et al. Etiology of acquired hypochromic patches in dermatological area in Mali. Mali Med. 2012;27:6–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Osman AM, Elkordufani Y, Abdullah MA. The psychological impact of vitiligo in adult Sudanese patients. Afr J Psychiatry (Johannesburg). 2009;12:284–6.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang Y, Cai Y, Shi M, et al. The prevalence of vitiligo: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0163806.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shajil EM, Chatterjee S, Agrawal D, et al. Vitiligo: pathomechanisms and genetic polymorphism of susceptible genes. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006;44:526–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kiprono S, Chaula B. Clinical epidemiological profiles of vitiligo. East Afr Med J. 2012;89:278–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schallreuter KU, Bahadoran P, Picardo M, et al. Vitiligo pathogenesis: autoimmune disease, genetic defect, excessive reactive oxygen species, calcium imbalance, or what else? Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:139–40; discussion 141–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Laddha NC, Dwivedi M, Mansuri MS, et al. Vitiligo: interplay between oxidative stress and immune system. Exp Dermatol. 2013;22:245–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xie H, Zhou F, Liu L, et al. Vitiligo: how do oxidative stress-induced autoantigens trigger autoimmunity? J Dermatol Sci. 2016;81:3–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spritz RA. The genetics of generalized vitiligo. Curr Dir Autoimmun. 2008;10:244–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ayanlowo O, Olumide YM, Akinkugbe A, et al. Characteristics of vitiligo in Lagos, Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 2009;28:118–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abdel-Naser MB, Krueger S, Krasagakis K, et al. Further evidence for involvement of both cell mediated and humoral immunity in generalized vitiligo. Pigment Cell Res. 1994;7:1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Taieb A, Alomar A, Böhm M, et al. Guidelines for the management of vitiligo. The European Dermatology Forum Consensus. Br J Dermatol. 2013;168:5–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Craiglow BG, King BA. Tofacitinib citrate for the treatment of vitiligo: a pathogenesis-directed therapy. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151:1110–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rothstein B, Joshipura D, Saraiya A, et al. Treatment of vitiligo with the topical Janus kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76:1054–60.e1.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lim HW, Grimes PE, Agbai O, et al. Afamelanotide and narrowband UV-B phototherapy for the treatment of vitiligo: a randomized multicenter trial. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151:42–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chimento SM, Newland M, Ricotti C, et al. A pilot study to determine the safety and efficacy of monochromatic excimer light in the treatment of vitiligo. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008;7:258–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdel Latif AA, Ibrahim SM. Monochromatic excimer light versus combination of topical steroid with vitamin D3 analogue in the treatment of nonsegmental vitiligo: a randomized blinded comparative study. Dermatol Ther. 2015;28:383–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grimes PE, Nashawati R. Depigmentation therapies for vitiligo. Dermatol Clin. 2017;35:219–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abdallah M, Abdel-Naser MB, Moussa MH, et al. Sequential immunohistochemical study of depigmenting and repigmenting minigrafts in vitiligo. Eur J Dermatol. 2003;13:548–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Falabella R. Surgical approaches for stable vitiligo. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:1277–84.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ream M. Hypomelanosis of Ito. Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;132:281–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gualandri L, Boccardi D, Menni S. A different approach for identifying hypomelanotic macules in tuberous sclerosis complex. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2015;150:501–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Manga P, Kerr R, Ramsay M, et al. Biology and genetics of oculocutaneous albinism and vitiligo—common pigmentation disorders in southern Africa. S Afr Med J. 2013;103:984–8.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Milunsky JM. Waardenburg syndrome type I. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. Gene reviews® [Internet]. Seattle: University of Washington, Seattle; 1993–2017.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Viecelli HM, Harbottle RP, Wong SP, et al. Treatment of phenylketonuria using minicircle-based naked-DNA gene transfer to murine liver. Hepatology. 2014;60:1035–43.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Juntongjin P, Laosakul K. Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis: a review of its etiology, pathogenesis, findings, and treatments. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016;17:403–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gordon JR, Reed KE, Sebastian KR, et al. Excimer light treatment for idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis: a pilot study. Dermatol Surg. 2017;43:553–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hassab-El-Naby HM, El-Khalawany MA. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in Egyptian patients. J Cutan Pathol. 2013;40:397–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bisherwal K, Singal A, Pandhi D, et al. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides: clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical remission induced by narrow-band Ultraviolet B. Indian J Dermatol. 2017;62:203–6.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oluleye TS, Rotimi-Samuel AO, Adenekan A, et al. Two cases of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada’s disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Int Med Case Rep J. 2016;9:373–6.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gupta M, Pande D, Lehl SS, et al. Alezzandrini syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 2011.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr.04.2011.4052. pii: bcr0420114052.
  32. 32.
    Gan EY, Eleftheriadou V, Esmat S, et al. Repigmentation in vitiligo: position paper of the Vitiligo Global Issues consensus conference. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2017;30:28–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Badawy Abdel-Naser
    • 1
  • Constantin E. Orfanos
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and VenereologyAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.The Free University of Berlin, Medical School CharitéBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations