Acne in Dark Skin

  • Christos C. ZouboulisEmail author
  • Emeka Okoro
  • Raj Kubba


Acne vulgaris is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the sebaceous follicle characterized by increased sebum secretion and formation of follicle-associated closed and open comedones, papules, pustules and nodules; pseudocysts and several types of scars are sequelae of the primary lesions [1]. Acne is a most common skin disease seen worldwide. However, its incidence and clinical presentation differ in various geographic areas and ethnicities. The disease is less commonly seen in populations with dark skin living in developing countries in Africa. In contrast, acne is on the top list of dermatoses seen in African Americans in the USA [2, 3], indicating that environmental factors may play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Acne vulgaris in dark skin is frequently either mild comedonal or nodular, in contrast to the classical presentation of acne papulopustulosa in fair skin (Table 18.1). In addition, facial acneiform dermatoses are frequently seen in patients with dark skin in Africa and India, more often than acne vulgaris itself. On the other hand, it seems that metabolic abnormalities associated with acne are overrepresented in India. Overall, the disease has a significant impact on the quality of life of young individuals worldwide and requires medical assistance and continuing support.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christos C. Zouboulis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emeka Okoro
    • 2
  • Raj Kubba
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of Dermatology, Venereology, Allergology and ImmunologyDessau Medical Center, Brandenburg Medical School Theodor FontaneDessauGermany
  2. 2.Dermatology Unit, Department of MedicineFederal Medical CentreKeffiNigeria
  3. 3.Delhi Dermatology Group, Kubba ClinicNew DelhiIndia

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