Advertisement

Trees on Farms for Livelihoods, Conservation of Biodiversity and Carbon Storage: Evidence from Nicaragua on This “Invisible” Resource

  • Eduardo Somarriba
  • Geovana Carreño-Rocabado
  • Freddy Amores
  • Willan Caicedo
  • Samuel Oblitas Gillés de Pélichy
  • Rolando Cerda
  • Jenny C. Ordóñez
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Agroforestry book series (ADAG, volume 12)

Abstract

Trees-on-Farms (TonF) are ubiquitous. Farmers obtain numerous goods and services from their trees, which help them to cope with their livelihood needs and contingencies, climate change, and other stresses. Some benefits from trees on farms are extensive to the global society. Decision and policy makers as well as development leaders are not consciously aware of the extent, (in terms of area covered, human population involved, contribution to national and local economics, etc.) and importance (for rural livelihoods and provision of ecosystem services) of trees on farms. As a consequence, they do not include this important natural resource in their territorial development and nature conservation planning. Trees on Farms are “invisible” in most forest legislation in the world. This has to be changed. Unfortunately, the inaccuracy and lack of enough detail of current TonF assessments impedes the estimation of the actual benefits derived from them, which in turn inhibits evidence-based planning and policy development. In this chapter we document the role of TonF in providing livelihoods, conservation of tree diversity, and storage of carbon in aboveground biomass in 90 smallholder farms in North-Eastern Nicaragua. This knowledge can help in the design of restoration efforts, and can also contribute to support policy and institutional enabling environments to motivate farmers to retain, manage and use TonF.

Keywords

Basic grains Cacao Coffee Ecosystem services Homegardens Pastures Timber 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the CGIAR research program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA), ICRAF and CATIE.

References

  1. Agúndez D, Douma S, Madrigal J, Gómez-Ramos A, Vinceti B, Alía R, Mahamane A (2016) Conservation of food tree species in Niger: towards a participatory approach in rural communities. For Syst 25(3). https://doi.org/10.5424/fs/2016253-09558
  2. Almendarez E, Orozco L, López A (2013) Existencias de especies maderables y frutales en fincas de Waslala, Nicaragua. Agroforestería en las Américas 49:68–77Google Scholar
  3. Amores F (2016) Contribución de los árboles en finca a los medios de vida rurales en dos sitios constrastantes de Nicaragua. Tesis Master. CATIE, Turrialba. http://repositorio.bibliotecaorton.catie.ac.cr:8080/handle/11554/8278
  4. Ango T, Börjeson L, Senbeta F, Hylander K (2014) Balancing ecosystem services and disservices: smallholder farmers’ use and management of forest and trees in an agricultural landscape in southwestern Ethiopia. Ecol Soc 19(1):16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayestas E (2013) Caracterización de árboles promisorios de cacao en fincas orgánicas de Waslala, Nicaragua. Agroforestería en las Américas 49:18–25Google Scholar
  6. Bayala J, Kindt R, Belem M, Kalinganire A (2011) Factors affecting the dynamics of tree diversity in agroforestry parklands of cereal and cotton farming systems in Burkina Faso. New For 41(3):281–296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-010-9222-z
  7. Caicedo Alban JW (2016) Diversidad y almacenamiento de carbono, en dos sitios con diferente grado de intensificación de uso de suelo de Nicaragua. Tesis MSc. CATIE, Turrialba, 102 pGoogle Scholar
  8. Cairns M (2007) Voices from the forest: integrating indigenous knowledge into sustainable upland farming. Earthscan, London. 826 pGoogle Scholar
  9. Cerda R, Deheuvels O, Calvache D, Niehaus L, Saenz Y, Kent J, Vilchez S, Villota A, Martinez C, Somarriba E (2014) Contribution of cocoa agroforestry systems to family income and domestic consumption: looking toward intensification. Agrofor Syst 88(6):957–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cerdán CR, Rebolledo MC, Soto G, Rapidel B, Sinclair FL (2012) Local knowledge of impacts of tree cover on ecosystem services in smallholder coffee production systems. Agric Syst 110:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chacon León C, Harvey CA (2008) Contribuciones de las cercas vivas a la estructura y conectividad de un paisaje fragmentado en Rio Frio, Costa Rica. In: Harvey CA, Sáenz JC (eds) Evaluación y conservación de biodiversidad en paisajes fragmentados de Mesoamérica. Editorial INBIO, Heredia, pp 225–248Google Scholar
  12. Chambers R, Leach M (1987) Trees to meet contingencies: savings and security for the rural poor. Overseas Development Institute, Social Forestry Network, Network Paper 5a. London, 32 pGoogle Scholar
  13. Chambers R, Leach M (1989) Trees as savings and security for the rural poor. World Dev 17(3):329–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chifamba E (2011) Cultivation and commercialisation of indigenous fruit trees to improve household food security in dry regions of Buhera Zimbabwe. J Sustain Dev Afr 13(5):95–108Google Scholar
  15. Dávila K, Caldera EC, Laguna JC (2017) Una mirada histórica del desarrollo agro-educativo del Municipio El Tuma – La Dalia, Matagalpa Revista Científica de FAREM-Estelí. Medio ambiente, tecnología y desarrollo humano Año 6/N° 21:81–98Google Scholar
  16. De Foresta H, Somarriba E, Temu A, Boulanger D, Feuilly H, Gauthier M (2013) Towards the assessment of trees outside forests. FAO Forestry Paper 164, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  17. de Sousa KFD, Detlefsen G, de Melo Virginio Filho E, Tobar D, Casanoves F (2016) Timber yield from smallholder agroforestry systems in Nicaragua and Honduras. Agrofor Syst 90(2):207–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-015-9846-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DeClerck FA, Chazdon R, Holl KD, Milder JC, Finegan B, Martinez-Salina A, Imbach P, Canet L, Ramos Z (2010) Biodiversity conservation in human-modified landscapes of Mesoamerica: Past, present and future. Biol Conserv 143(10):2301–2313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Di Rienzo JA, Casanoves F, Balzarini MG, Gonzalez L, Tablada M, Robledo CW (2011) (InfoStat.). versión 24–03–2011 edn. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina. http://www.infostat.com.ar/
  20. Dogra AS (2011) Contribution of trees outside forests toward wood production and environmental amelioration. Indian J Ecol 38:1–5Google Scholar
  21. Esquivel H, Ibrahim M, Harvey CA, Benjamin T, Sinclair FL (2014) Pod availability, yield and nutritional characteristics from four fruit bearing tree species dispersed in pastures as a complementary feed for animal production in the dry tropics. Livest Res Rural Dev 26(9):1–10Google Scholar
  22. Etongo D, Djenontin I, Kanninen M, Fobissie K (2015) Smallholders’ tree planting activity in the Ziro Province, Southern Burkina Faso: impacts on livelihood and policy implications. Forests 6(8):2655–2677. https://doi.org/10.3390/f6082655 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. FAO (2016) The state of food and agriculture-addressing: climate change, agriculture and food security 2016. FAO, Rome. 174 pGoogle Scholar
  24. Mengistu F, Hager H (2010) Integration of indigenous wild woody perennial edible fruit bearing species in the agricultural landscapes of Amhara region, Ethiopia. Agrofor Syst 78(1):79–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-009-9239-5
  25. Fifanou VG, Ousmane C, Gauthier B, Brice S (2011) Traditional agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation in Benin (West Africa). Agrofor Syst 82:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-011-9377-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Godoy RA (1992) Determinants of smallholder commercial tree cultivation. World Dev 20(5):713–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haglund E, Ndjeunga J, Snook L, Pasternak D (2011) Dry land tree management for improved household livelihoods: Farmer managed natural regeneration in Niger. J Environ Manag 92:1696–1705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harvey CA, Haber WA (1999) Remnant trees and the conservation of biodiversity in Costa Rican pastures. Agrofor Syst 44:37–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harvey CA, Komar O, Chazdon R, Ferguson BG, Finegan B, Griffith DM, Martinez-Ramos M, Morales H, Nigh R, Soto-Pinto L, Van Breugel M, Wishnie M (2008) Integrating agricultural landscapes with biodiversity conservation in the Mesoamerican hotspot. Conserv Biol 22(1):8–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00863.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Henry M, Tittonell P, Manlay RJ, Bernoux M, Albrecht A, Vanlauwe B (2009) Biodiversity, carbon stocks and sequestration potential in aboveground biomass in smallholder farming systems of western Kenya. Agric Ecosyst Environ 129:238–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Dobie P, Njenga M, Ndegwa G, Jamnadass R (2014) The potential of agroforestry in the provision of sustainable woodfuel in sub-Saharan Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 6:138–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Iiyama M, Derero AH, Kelemu K, Muthuri C, Kinuthia R, Ayenkulu E, Kiptot E, Hadgu K, Mowo J, Sinclair FL (2017) Understanding patterns of tree adoption on farms in semi-arid and sub-humid Ethiopia. Agrofor Syst 91(2):271–293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-016-9926-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Imbach A (1987) Análisis económico y financiero de fincas pequeñas con sistemas mixtos de Producción: metodología y estudio de caso en fincas de Jocoro, El Salvador. CATIE, Turrialba. 72 pGoogle Scholar
  34. Jiménez G (2012) Producción de madera y almacenamiento de carbono en cafetales con cedro (Cedrela odorata) y caoba (Swietenia macrophylla) en Honduras. Tesis MSc. CATIE, Turrialba. 122 pGoogle Scholar
  35. Kehlenbeck K, McMullin S (2015) Fruit tree portfolios for improved diets and nutrition in Machakos County, Kenya. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi. 16 pGoogle Scholar
  36. Kindt R, Simons AJ, Van Damme P (2004) Do farm characteristics explain differences in tree species diversity among Western Kenyan farms? Agrofor Syst 63:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kleinn C (2000) On large-area inventory and assessment of trees outside forests. Unasylva 200(51):3–10Google Scholar
  38. Kleinn C, Ramírez C, Holmgren P, Valverde SL, Chavez G (2005) A national forest resources assessment for Costa Rica based on low intensity sampling. For Ecol Manag 210(1):9–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuyah S, Mbow C, Sileshi GW, van Noordwijk M, Tully KL, Rosenstock TS (2016a) Quantifying tree biomass carbon stocks and fluxes in agricultural landscapes. Chapter 6. In: Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, Wollenberg E, Richards M (eds) Methods for measuring greenhouse gas balances and evaluating mitigation options in smallholder agriculture. Springer, Cham, pp 119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kuyah S et al (2016b) Trees in agricultural landscapes enhance provision of ecosystem services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manag:1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2016.1214178
  41. Laderach P, Lundy M, Jarvis A, Ramirez J, Portilla EP, Schepp K, Eitzinger A (2011) Predicted impact of climate change on coffee supply chains. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 703–723. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14776-0_42
  42. Leguía E, Rapidel B, Somarriba E, Ordoñez J (2014) Resumen linea de base CCAFS a nivel de hogar en Nicaragua y Honduras. Tesis, CATIE, TurrialbaGoogle Scholar
  43. Liknes GC, Perry CH, Meneguzzo DM (2010) Assessing tree cover in agricultural landscapes using high-resolution aerial imagery. J Terrestrial Obs 2(1):38–55Google Scholar
  44. Lovell ST, Mendez VE, Erickson DL, Nathan C, DeSantis S (2010) Extent, pattern, and multifunctionality of treed habitats on farms in Vermont, USA. Agrofor Syst 80:153–171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-010-9328-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lowder SK, Skoet J, Singh S (2014) What do we really know about the number and distribution of farms and family farms worldwide? Background paper for The State of Food and Agriculture 2014. ESA Working Paper No. 14-02. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  46. Magurran AE, McGill BJ (2011) Biological diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 344 pGoogle Scholar
  47. Mallya BS (2013) Contribution of on-farm trees towards conservation of the biodiversity of Amani Nature Reserve, Tanzania. MSc. thesis, University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 105 pGoogle Scholar
  48. Marquardt K, Milestad R, Salomonsson L (2013) Improved fallows: a case study of an adaptive response in Amazonian swidden farming systems. Agric Hum Values 30(3):417–428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-012-9415-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mekonnen A, Damte A (2011) Private trees as household assets and determinants of tree-growing behavior in rural Ethiopia. Environment for Development (EfD), Discussion Paper Series, DP 11-14. 29 pGoogle Scholar
  50. Ndayambaje JD, Mugiraneza T, Mohren GMJ (2013) Woody biomass on farms and in the landscapes of Rwanda. Agrofor Syst 88(1):101–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-013-9659-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Oblitas S (2016) Intensidad agroecológica en fincas agropecuarias en dos sitios socioeconómicamente contrastante en Nicaragua. Tesis Master. CATIE, Turrialba. http://repositorio.bibliotecaorton.catie.ac.cr:8080/handle/11554/8278
  52. Oeba VO, Otor CJ, Kung’u JB, Muchiri MN (2012) Modeling determinants of tree planting and retention on farm for improvement of forest cover in Central Kenya. International Scholarly Research Notices 2012,14 pGoogle Scholar
  53. Orozco L, López A, Somarriba E (2008) Enriquecimiento de fincas cacaoteras con frutales y maderables en Alto Beni, Bolivia. Agroforestería en las Américas 46:65–72Google Scholar
  54. PDTW (2014) Plan de desarrollo territorial del municipio de Waslala 2014–2034. https://www.avsf.org/public/posts/1703/plan-de-desarrollo-territorial-waslala_avsf_2014.pdf
  55. Perry CH, Woodall CW, Liknes GC, Schoeneberger MM (2009) Filling the gap: improving estimates of working tree resources in agricultural landscapes. Agrofor Syst 75:91–101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-008-9125-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pinoargote M, Cerda R, Mercado L, Aguilar A, Barrios M, Somarriba E (2016) Carbon stocks, net cash flow and family benefits from four small coffee plantation types in Nicaragua. For Trees Livelihoods 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/14728028.2016.1268544
  57. Plath M, Mody K, Potvin C, Dorn S (2010) Do multipurpose companion trees affect high value timber trees in a silvopastoral plantation system? Agrofor Syst 81(1):79–92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-010-9308-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Quandt A (2016) Farmers and forest conservation: how might land sparing work in practice? Soc Nat Resour 29(4):418–431. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2015.1095381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ramirez O, Somarriba E, Ludewigs T, Ferreira P (2001) Financial returns, stability and risk of cacao-plantain-timber agroforestry systems in Central America. Agrofor Syst 51(2):141–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Regmi B, Garforth C (2010) Trees outside forests and rural livelihoods: a study of Chitwan District, Nepal. Agrofor Syst 79(3):393–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-010-9292-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Robiglio V, Lescuyer G, Cerutti P (2013) From farmers to loggers: the role of shifting cultivation landscapes in timber production in Cameroon. Small-scale For 12(1):67–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roshetko JM (2013) Smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement and carbon storage. Ph.D thesis, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg. 94 pGoogle Scholar
  63. Rudel T, Sloan S, Chazdon R, Grau R (2016) The drivers of tree cover expansion: global, temperate, and tropical zone analyses. Land Use Policy 58:502–513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.08.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schnell S, Altrell D, Stahl G, Kleinn C (2015a) The contribution of trees outside forests to national tree biomass and carbon stocks – a comparative study across three continents. Environ Monit Assess 187(1):4197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Schnell S, Kleinn C, Stahl G (2015b) Monitoring trees outside forests: a review. Environ Monit Assess 187(9):600CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sebastian G, Kanowski P, Race D, Williams E, Roshetko J (2014) Household and farm attributes affecting adoption of smallholder timber management practices by tree growers in Gunungkidul Region, Indonesia. Agrofor Syst 88(2):257–268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-014-9673-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sibale B, Kafakoma R, Shaba A, Macqueen D (2013) Trees on-farm: removing the obstacles to enterprise: a review of current climate-smart tree-based experiences in Malawi. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), LondonGoogle Scholar
  68. Sloan S, Sayer JA (2015) Forest resources assessment of 2015 shows positive global trends but forest loss and degradation persist in poor tropical countries. For Ecol Manag 352:134–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Smeets EMW, Faaij APC (2007) Bioenergy potentials from forestry in 2050. Clim Chang 81(3):353–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-9163-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Somarriba E (2012) The population dynamics and productivity of Acacia pennatula in the pasturelands of the Nature Reserve Mesas de Moropotente, Estelí, Nicaragua. Agrofor Syst 84(1):1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-011-9447-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Somarriba E, Beer J (2011) Productivity of Theobroma cacao agroforestry systems with timber or legume service shade trees. Agrofor Syst 81(2):109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Somarriba E, Cerda R, Orozco L, Cifuentes M, Dávila H, Espin T, Mavisoy H, Ávila G, Alvarado E, Poveda V (2013) Carbon stocks and cocoa yields in agroforestry systems of Central America. Agric Ecosyst Environ 173:46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Somarriba E, Suárez-Islas A, Calero-Borge W, Villota A, Castillo C, Vílchez S, Deheuvels O, Cerda R (2014) Cocoa–timber agroforestry systems: Theobroma cacao–Cordia alliodora in Central America. Agrofor Syst 88(6):1001–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Somarriba E, Sepúlveda N, Ayerdis JR, Cornelius J, Retamal R (2016) Frutales y maderables en patios y fincas de la zona de Los Pueblos, Nicaragua Serie Técnica. Informe Técnico 404:70, CATIE, TurrialbaGoogle Scholar
  75. Tisdell CA (1985) Conserving and planting trees on farms: lesssons from Australia cases. Rev Mark Agric Econ 53(3):185–194Google Scholar
  76. Vaast P, Somarriba E (2014) Trade-offs between crop intensification and ecosystem services: the role of agroforestry in cocoa cultivation. Agrofor Syst 88(6):947–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Van Leeuwen ACJ, Hofstede AM (1995) Forests, trees and farming in the Atlantic zone of Costa Rica. An evaluation of the current and future integration of trees and forests in farming systems in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. CATIE, Serie Técnica Informe Técnico 257. Turrialba. 73 pGoogle Scholar
  78. Warner K (1993) Patterns of farmer tree growing in Eastern Africa: a socioeconomic analysis. Oxford Forestry Institute, Tropical Forestry Papers 27. Oxford. 284 pGoogle Scholar
  79. Welsch J, Case BS, Bigsby H (2014) Trees on farms: Investigating and mapping woody re-vegetation potential in an intensely-farmed agricultural landscape. Agric Ecosyst Environ 183:93–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zomer RJ, Trabucco A, Coe R, Place F (2009) Trees on farm: analysis of global extent and geographical patterns of agroforestry. ICRAF Working Paper no. 89. World Agroforestry Centre, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  81. Zomer R, Coe R, Place F, van Noordwijk M, Xu J (2014) Trees on farms: an update and reanalysis of agroforestry’s global extent and socio-ecological characteristics. Working Paper 179. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Southeast Asia Regional Program Bogor, Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.5716/WP14064.PDF

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduardo Somarriba
    • 1
  • Geovana Carreño-Rocabado
    • 1
    • 2
  • Freddy Amores
    • 1
  • Willan Caicedo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Samuel Oblitas Gillés de Pélichy
    • 1
  • Rolando Cerda
    • 1
  • Jenny C. Ordóñez
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE)TurrialbaCosta Rica
  2. 2.World Agroforestry Centre – ICRAFTurrialbaCosta Rica

Personalised recommendations