Biomechanics of Three-Dimensional Face

  • Lawrence C. Y. Ho
  • Michael F. Klaassen
  • Kumar Mithraratne


As stated in the preceding chapters, the human head is a three-dimensional, structurally as well as functionally complex unit that consists of several anatomical structures. These include bones, muscles, fat, ligaments, skin and vessels. It contains delicate expressive areas while the rest of the head is relatively immobile and contributes virtually nothing to the formation of facial expressions and gestures. There exist over 60 muscles in the face; most are bilateral muscles (exist in pairs), for serving different day-to-day functions such as mastication, vision and communication.

Supplementary material

Video 3.1

Video of Fig. 3.9 (MPEG 7427 kb) (MPEG 7427 kb)

Video 3.2

Video of Fig. 3.10 (MPEG 5933 kb) (MPEG 5933 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence C. Y. Ho
    • 1
  • Michael F. Klaassen
    • 2
  • Kumar Mithraratne
    • 3
  1. 1.Formerly Repatriation General Hospital ConcordSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Private PracticeAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.The University of AucklandAuckland Bioengineering InstituteAucklandNew Zealand

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