Clinical Three-Dimensional Anatomy

  • Lawrence C. Y. Ho
  • Michael F. Klaassen
  • Kumar Mithraratne


The face/head is an elongated hexahedral three-dimensional anatomical structure. Five planes are on view from the front (Fig. 2.1a–c), i.e. two horizontal, two foreshortened side planes and a front plane [1–3]. The “complex” front plane is divided into upper and lower sectors by the orbits; side to side, it is segmented into two “side panels” by the midline mouth/nose complex. Unlike a regular cuboid, the face’s front/side changeover junction angle is 80–85°. This changeover junction line (Fig. 2.1a–c) is not straight and vertical; it is a gently curved oblique line running from forehead temple junction above to the mandible/mental junction inferiorly with a gently narrowing front/side changeover junction as it reaches its caudal destination.

Supplementary material

Video 2.1

Video of Fig. 2.2a (MP4 9343 kb)

Video 2.2

Video of Fig. 2.13 (MP4 2560 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence C. Y. Ho
    • 1
  • Michael F. Klaassen
    • 2
  • Kumar Mithraratne
    • 3
  1. 1.Formerly Repatriation General Hospital ConcordSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Private PracticeAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.The University of AucklandAuckland Bioengineering InstituteAucklandNew Zealand

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