• Salah Al-SharhanEmail author


This chapter surveys the development and current state of e-learning in the State of Kuwait. The author surveys the general social, economic, historical, and demographic background of Kuwait and provides a review of its educational system. Analysis and statistics on the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure, usage of ICT in the country, and challenges and barriers to ICT implementation in education, business, and government are also provided. The chapter further explores in detail the major e-learning platforms, initiatives, and projects throughout the country. Information is additionally provided on accreditation, teacher training programs, and the regulatory framework of e-learning. Finally, the author speculates on the future development of e-learning in Kuwait. A comprehensive bibliography on e-learning scholarship related to the country, including government reports and websites, appears at the end of the chapter.


Kuwait E-learning Web-based learning ICT Internet Education Distance learning 


  1. Alajmi, M. (2010). Faculty members’ readiness for e-learning in the College of Basic Education in Kuwait. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas, Denton, Tex.Google Scholar
  2. Alajmi, S. S. S. (2011). Factors influencing information and communication technology implementation in government secondary schools in Kuwait. Doctoral dissertation, University of Exeter, Exeter.Google Scholar
  3. Alawadhi, N. (2011). The impact of computer use in the development of mathematics teaching in primary education. Doctoral dissertation, Brunel University, London. Retrieved from
  4. Al-Awidi, H., & Aldhafeeri, F. (2017). Teachers’ readiness to implement digital curriculum in Kuwaiti schools. Journal of Information Technology Education, 16(1), 105–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alayyar, G. M., Fisser, P., & Voogt, J. (2012). Developing technological pedagogical content knowledge in pre-service science teachers: Support from blended learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(8), 1298–1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aldhafeeri, F., Almulla, M., & Alraqas, B. (2006). Teachers’ expectations of the impact of e-learning on Kuwait’s public education system. Social Behavior and Personality, 34(6), 711–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aldhafeeri, F. M., & Alajmi, M. R. (2016). Towards excelled mobile learning implementation in Kuwait university: Aspects and obstacles of use and non-use. Proceedings BESSH, 173(20), 5–19.Google Scholar
  8. Aldhafeeri, F. M., & Khan, B. H. (2016). Teachers’ and students’ views on e-learning readiness in Kuwait’s secondary public schools. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 45(2), 202–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aldhafeeri, F., Palaiologou, I., & Folorunsho, A. (2016). Integration of digital technologies into play-based pedagogy in Kuwaiti early childhood education: Teachers’ views, attitudes and aptitudes. International Journal of Early Years Education, 24(3), 342–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aldhafeeri, F., & Male, T. (2016). Investigating the learning challenges presented by digital technologies to the College of Education in Kuwait University. Education and Information Technologies, 21(6), 1509–1519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Al-Doub, E., Goodwin, R., & Al-Hunaiyyan, A. (2008). Students’ attitudes toward e-learning in Kuwait’s higher education institutions. Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, 841–848. Retrieved from
  12. Al-Doub, E. (2010). E-learning in Kuwait’s higher education sectors. Doctoral dissertation, Flinders University, Bedrock Park, AU.Google Scholar
  13. Al-Fadhli, S. M. (2008a). The impact of e-learning on student’s critical thinking in higher education institutions: Kuwait University as a case study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Salford, Manchester.Google Scholar
  14. Al-Fadhli, S. (2008b). Students’ perceptions of e-learning in Arab Society: Kuwait University as a case study. E–Learning, 5(4), 418–428.Google Scholar
  15. Al-Fadhli, S. (2009a). Factors influencing the acceptance of distance learning: A case study of Arab Open University in Kuwait. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 12(3). Retrieved from
  16. Al-Fadhli, S. (2009b). Instructor perceptions of e-learning in an Arab country: Kuwait University as a case study. E-Learning and Digital Media, 6(2), 221–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Al-Fadhli, S., & Khalfan, A. (2009). Developing critical thinking in e-learning environment: Kuwait University as a case study. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 34(5), 529–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Alfadly, A. A. (2013). The efficiency of the Learning Management System (LMS) in AOU, Kuwait, as a communication tool in an e-learning system. The International Journal of Educational Management: IJEM, 27(2), 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Alfar, E. (2013). Kuwait. In D. Ness & C.-L. Lin (Eds.), International education: An encyclopedia of contemporary issues and systems (pp. 670–674). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  20. AlHajri, R., Al-Sharhan, S., & Al-Hunaiyyan, A. (2017). Students’ perceptions of mobile learning: Case study of Kuwait. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 11(2), 352–355.Google Scholar
  21. Alharbi, G. (2012). Primary school teachers’ perceptions regarding ICT usage and equipment in Kuwait. Journal of International Education Research, 8(1), 55–62.Google Scholar
  22. Alharbi, E. (2014). A Study on the use of ICT in teaching in secondary schools in Kuwait. Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  23. Alhazmi, A. K., & Rahman, A. A. (2012). Why LMS failed to support student learning in higher education institutions. In 2012 IEEE symposium (2012), Kuala Lumpur (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  24. Alhazmi, A. K., & Rahman, A. A. (2013). Facebook in higher education: Students’ use and perceptions. Advances in information Sciences and Service Sciences (AISS), 5(15), 32–41.Google Scholar
  25. Al-Hunaiyyan, A. (2000). Design of multimedia software in relation to users’ culture. Doctoral dissertation, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield.Google Scholar
  26. Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Al-Huwail, N., & Al-Sharhan, S. (2008a). Blended e-learning design: Discussion of cultural issues. International Journal of Cyber Society and Education, 1(1), 17–32.Google Scholar
  27. Al Hunaiyyan, A., & Al Sharhan, S. (2009). The design of multimedia blended e-learning systems: Cultural considerations. In 2009 3rd International Conference on Signals, Circuits and Systems (SCS) (pp. 1–5). Retrieved from
  28. Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Alhajri, R., & Al-Sharhan, S. (2017a). Prospects and challenges of mobile learning implementation: Kuwait HE case study. International Arab Journal of e-Technology, 4(3), 134–150.Google Scholar
  29. Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Al-Sharhan, S., & Alhajri, R. (2017b). A new mobile learning model in the context of smart classroom environment: A holistic approach. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 11(3), 39–56.Google Scholar
  30. Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Alhajri, R., & Al-Sharhan, S. (2017c). Instructors age and gender differences in the acceptance of mobile learning. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 11(4), 4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Al-Ali, K. (2010). Automating PAAET: The Kuwaiti distance learning project–a personal reflection. In Proceedings of the fifth conference of learning international networks consortium. Google Scholar
  32. Alhajri, R., Al-Sharhan, S., Al-Hunaiyyan, A. & Alothman, T. (2011). Design of educational multimedia interfaces: Individual differences of learners. In Second Kuwait conference on E-Services and E-Systems, Kuwait.Google Scholar
  33. Alhazmi, A., Rahman, A., & Zafar, H. (2014). Conceptual model for the academic use of Social Networking Sites from student engagement perspective. In 2014 IEEE Conference on e-Learning, e-Management and e-Services (IC3e). Google Scholar
  34. Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Al-Sharhan, S., & Al-Huwail, N. (2008). Blended e-learning design: Discussion of cultural issues. International Journal of Cyber Society and Education, 1(1), 17–32.Google Scholar
  35. Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Al-Sharhan, S., & Al-Sharrah, H. (2012). New instructional competency model: Towards an effective e-learning system and environment. The International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science, 5, 94–103.Google Scholar
  36. Al-Hunaiyyana, A., Alhajria, R. A., & Al-Sharhan, S. (2016, in press). Perceptions and challenges of mobile learning in Kuwait. Journal of King Saud University – Computer and Information Sciences. Retrieved from
  37. Ali, G. E., & Magalhaes, R. (2008). Barriers to implementing e-learning. A Kuwaiti case study. International Journal of Training and Development, 12(1), 36–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Aljamal, A., Cader, H., Chiemeke, C., & Speece, M. (2015). Empirical assessment of e-learning on performance in principles of economics. International Review of Economics Education, 18(2015), 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Al-Khalifah, & Ahmad J. (1994). Teachers’ use of audiovisual media for teaching and learning in Kuwait public schools, the influence of teacher training colleges, and the role of the school library in media provision. Doctoral dissertation, Loughborough University, Loughborough.Google Scholar
  40. Alkharang, M. M., & Ghinea, G. (2013). E-learning in higher educational institutions in Kuwait: Experiences and challenges. (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 4(4), 1–6.Google Scholar
  41. Al-Ibrahim, M. H. (2009). Toward improving the training system at PAAET: The telecommunication and navigation institute. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 37(2), 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Al-kandari, A., Al-Hunaiyyan, A., & Alhajri, R. (2016). The influence of culture on instagram use. Journal of Advances in Information Technology, 7(1), 54–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Allamki, Z. (2013). The readiness of open access policy implementation. A case study within a Kuwaiti higher education institute. Doctoral dissertation, University of Salford, Manchester. Retrieved from
  44. Allani, C., & Sharafuddin, H. (2014). The demand and supply imbalances in blended learning at the Arab Open University–Kuwait. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 4(2), 143–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Al Maati, S. A., & Damaj, I. (2010). Developing a sustainable engineering education in the Middle East and North Africa region. In Transforming engineering education: Creating interdisciplinary skills for complex global environments, 2010 IEEE (pp. 1–11). Retrieved from
  46. Almulla, M. (2009). School e-Guide: A personalized recommender system for e-learning environments. In Proceedings of the first Kuwait conference on e-Services and e-Systems. Retrieved from
  47. Alostatha, J. M., Metle, M. K., Al Ali, L., & Abdulhadi Abdullah, L. R. (2011). Cross-use pattern language: Cross-cultural user interface development tool. Procedia Computer Science, 3(2011), 1541–1550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Al-Oteawi, S. (2002). The perceptions of administrators and teachers in utilizing information technology in instruction, administrative work, technology planning and staff development in Saudi Arabia. Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio University, Ohio.Google Scholar
  49. Al-Othman, N. M. A. (2004). The relationship between gender and learning styles in internet-based teaching – A study from Kuwait. The Reading Matrix, 4(1), 38–54.Google Scholar
  50. Alqattan, M. E. (2009). The digital divide between male and female freshmen students in the College of Health Sciences in Kuwait. Masters thesis, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL.Google Scholar
  51. Alqudsi, T. M., & Alkhaledi, R. M. (2015). Website usability: The case of Kuwaiti middle school students. The Electronic Library, 33(3), 557–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Alrasheedi, H. (2009). Information and communication technology (ICT). Effects of gender training among Kuwait teachers. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University, Ohio.Google Scholar
  53. Al-Shammari, Z. (2011). Does integrating technology-based attendance into teacher education program improve student achievement in Kuwait? College Student Journal: CSJ, 45(4), 839–847.Google Scholar
  54. Al-Sharef, T., Anderson, B., & Strivens, J. (2016). Educational technology in Kuwait: Pre-service teachers’ perception and intent. In EdMedia: World conference on educational media and technology (pp. 1102–1107). Chesapeake: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).Google Scholar
  55. Al Sharhan, S., Al Hunaiyyan, A., & Al Sharah, H. (2010). A new efficient blended e-learning model and framework for K12 and higher education: Design and implementation success factors. In 2010 fifth International Conference on Digital Information Management (ICDIM) (pp. 465–471). Retrieved from
  56. Al-Sharhan, S., & Al-Hunaiyyan, A. (2012). Towards an effective integrated e-learning system: Implementation, quality assurance and competency models. In IEEE seventh International Conference on Digital Information Management (ICDIM) (pp. 274–279).Google Scholar
  57. Al-Sharhan, S., Al-Hunaiyyan, A., & Gueaieb, W. (2006). Success factors for an efficient blended elearning. In J.-N. Hwang (Ed.), Proceedings of the international conference on internet and multimedia systems and applications (IMSA 2006) (pp. 77–82). Honolulu: IASTED.Google Scholar
  58. Al-Sharhan, S. (2016). Smart classrooms in the context of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) environment: A holistic approach. In K. Alshahrani & M. Ally (Eds.), Transforming education in the Gulf region – Emerging learning technologies and innovative pedagogy for the 21st century (pp. 188–214). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  59. Al-Sharija, M. (2012). Leadership practices of Kuwaiti secondary school principals for embedding ICT. Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  60. Al Sharija, M., & Watters, J. J. (2012). Innovative leadership by school principals: Embedding information communication and technology in Kuwaiti schools. Journal of International Education Research, 8(4), 425–434.Google Scholar
  61. Al Sharija, M., Qaban, A., & Watters, J. J. (2012). Principals, teachers, and student’s perception of the information and communication technology in Kuwait secondary schools (Rhetoric and reality). Journal of Education and Practice, 3(12), 91–99.Google Scholar
  62. Alshebou, S., & AlAwadhi, S. (2013). Usability of Blackboard system applied at Kuwait University. In 2013 fourth international conference on e-Learning “Best practices in management, design and development of e-Courses: Standards of excellence and creativity” (pp. 318–324). Retrieved from
  63. Alshuaib, A. (2014). Promoting social presence in a social networking environment in a Kuwaiti higher education context. Doctoral dissertation, University of Exeter, Exeter.Google Scholar
  64. Alsumait, A., & Al-Musawi, Z. S. (2013). Creative and innovative e-learning using interactive storytelling. International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, 9(3), 209–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Bakari, J., Tarimo, C., Yngstrom, L., & Magnusso, C. (2005). State of ICT security management in the institutions of higher learning in developing countries: Tanzania case study. In Fifth IEEE international conference on advanced learning technologies, (pp. 10–16).Google Scholar
  66. Barker, A., Krull, G., & Mallinson, B. (2005). A proposed theoretical model for m-learning adoption in developing countries. In Proceedings of 4th World conference on mLearning, Cape Town (pp. 1–10). Capetown, SA.Google Scholar
  67. Bautista, G., & Borges, F. (2013). Smart classrooms: Innovation in formal learning spaces to transform learning experiences. IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology, 15(3), 18–21.Google Scholar
  68. Buarki, H., Hepworth, M., & Murray, I. (2011). LIS students’ ICT skills in Kuwait. Perspectives of employers, teaching staff and students. US-China Education Review, 1, 89–97.Google Scholar
  69. Carliner, S., & Shank, P. (2016). The e-learning handbook: Past promises, present challenges. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  70. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2017). Kuwait. CIA factbook. Retrieved from
  71. Cheon, J., Lee, S., Crooks, S., & Song, J. (2012). An investigation of mobile learning readiness in higher education based on the theory of planned behavior. Computers & Education, 59(3), 1054–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Chrysafiadi, K., & Virvou, M. (2013). PeRSIVA: An empirical evaluation method of a student model of an intelligent e-learning environment for computer programming. Computers & Education, 68, 322–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Colley, J., & Stead, G. (2003). Take a bite: Producing accessible learning materials for mobile devices. In Proceedings of MLEARN 2003: Learning with mobile devices (pp. 43–46). London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.Google Scholar
  74. Dashti, F., & Aldashti, A. (2015). EFL college students’ attitudes towards mobile learning. International Education Studies, 8(8), 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Dhir, A., & Alsumait, A. (2013). Examining the educational user interface, technology and pedagogy for Arabic speaking children in Kuwait. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 19(7), 1003–1022.Google Scholar
  76. Eid, G. K. (2005). An investigation into the effects and factors influencing computer-based online math problem-solving in primary schools. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 33(3), 223–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. El-Gamal, M., Al-Khayyat, R. M., & El-Ewayed, L. (2005). An assessment of the relationships of awareness, attitude, satisfaction and organization support associated with e-learning and organization and individual performance. Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 21(2), 68–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. El-Gamal, M., & Al-Khayyat, R. M. (2009). E-learning and individual characteristics: The role and implications of gender, age, education, tenure and managerial level. In Proceedings of the first Kuwait conference on e-Services and e-Systems. Retrieved from
  79. Erguvan, D. (2014). Instructor’s perceptions towards the use of an online instructional tool in an academic English setting in Kuwait. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 13(1), 115–130.Google Scholar
  80. Etedali, M. M. (2009). Towards a model for e-learning in English language teachers’ in-service training in Kuwait. In Proceedings of the first Kuwait conference on e-Services and e-Systems. Retrieved from
  81. Ghaith, O. (2013). The impact of blended learning on female student-teachers in Kuwait. Doctoral dissertation, Brunel University, London. Retrieved from
  82. Goodwin, R. D. (2008). E-Learning in Kuwait: Issues related to instructors. In Proceeding of 7th International Internet Education Conference, Cairo.Google Scholar
  83. GUST. (2012). GUST Bulletin 2010–2012. Retrieved from
  84. GUST. (2017). e-learning center, Gulf University for Science and Technology. Retrieved from
  85. Hamade, S. N. (2012). Student perceptions of learning management systems in a university environment: Yahoo Groups vs Blackboard. In 2012 ninth international conference on Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG) (pp. 594–599). Retrieved from
  86. Ismail, I., Azizn, S., & Azman, I. (2013). Mobile phone as pedagogical tools: Are teachers ready. International Educational Studies, 6(3), 36–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kim, H., & Kankanhalli, A. (2009). Investigating user resistance to information systems implementation: A status quo bias perspective. MIS Quarterly, 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kirkpatrick, D., & Kirkpatrick, J. (2006). Evaluating training programs: The four levels (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  89. Kong, S.-C., Chee-Kit, L., & Tak-Wai, C. (2017). Teacher development in Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Beijing for e-learning in school education. Journal of Computers in Education, 4(1), 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kuwait National Development Plan (KNDP). (2017). Retrieved from
  91. Kuwait’s Public Authority for Civil Information. (2017). Population of Kuwait. Retrieved from
  92. Kuwait University. (2017). Kuwait University strategic plan. Retrieved from
  93. Laurillard, D. (2006). E-learning in higher education. In P. Ashwin (Ed.), Changing higher education (pp. 71–84). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  94. Meerza, A., & Beauchamp, G. (2017a). Factors influencing attitudes towards information and communication technology (ICT) amongst undergraduates: An empirical study conducted in Kuwait higher education institutions (KHEIs). TOJET, 16(2), 35–42.Google Scholar
  95. Meerza, A., & Beauchamp, G. (2017b). Factors influencing undergraduates attitudes towards ICT: An empirical study in Kheis. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 16(2), 35.Google Scholar
  96. Messinger, J. (2012). M-learning: An exploration of the attitudes and perceptions of high school students versus teachers regarding the current and future use of mobile devices for learning. USA: ProQuest LLC.Google Scholar
  97. Moodle website. (2017). Retrieved from
  98. Mutawa, A. M. (2017). It is time to MOOC and SPOC in the Gulf region. Education and Information Technologies, 22(4), 1651–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nov, O., & Ye, C. (2008). Users’ personality and perceived ease of use of digital libraries: The case for resistance to change. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 59(5), 845–851.Google Scholar
  100. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (2017). OPEC annual statistical bulletin. Vienna: OPEC.Google Scholar
  101. Picek, R. & Grčić, M. (2013). Evaluation of the potential use of m-learning in higher education. In Proceedings of the ITI 2013 35th international conference on information technology interfaces (pp. 63–68). doi: 10.2498/iti.2013.0583.Google Scholar
  102. Qureshi, I., Ilyas, K., Yasmin, L., & Whitty, M. (2012). Challenges of implementing e-learning in a Pakistani university. Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, 4(3), 323–336.Google Scholar
  103. Reseach & Markets. (2017). Middle East online education & e-learning market size, demand, opportunity & growth outlook 2023. Dublin: Research and Markets.Google Scholar
  104. Rogers, F. M., & AlDdhafeeri, F. M. (2014). The Pedagogical variation model: Learning and teaching in virtual spaces at the University of Kuwait. In E-Learn 2014 – New Orleans, LA, October 27–30 (pp. 1653–1662).Google Scholar
  105. Rogers, M. S., & Aldhafeeri, F. M. (2016). The pedagogical variation model (PVM) for work-based training in virtual classrooms: Evaluation at Kuwait University. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 61(2), 184–208.Google Scholar
  106. Safar, A. H. (2001). Selective perspectives of implementing computer technology in K-12 education in the State of Kuwait. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.Google Scholar
  107. Safar, A. H. (2012). The Students’ perspectives of online training at Kuwait University. College Student Journal, 46(2), 436–458.Google Scholar
  108. Safar, A. H., & AlKhezzi, F. A. (2013). Beyond computer literacy: Technology integration and curriculum transformation. College Student Journal, 47(4), 614–626.Google Scholar
  109. Safar, A. H., Al-Jafar, A. A., & Al-Yousefi, Z. H. (2017). The effectiveness of using augmented reality apps in teaching the English alphabet to kindergarten children: A case study in the state of Kuwait. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 13(2), 417–440.Google Scholar
  110. Sharafuddin, H., & Allani, C. (2010). The Efficiency of e-learning system, case study: Arab Open University-Kuwait. In International conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, EDULEARN 2010, Barcelona (July 5–7, 2010).Google Scholar
  111. Sharafuddin, H., & Allani, C. (2011). Measuring students’ satisfaction in blended learning at the Arab Open University – Kuwait. In V. Snasel, J. Platos, & E. El-Qawasmeh (Eds.), Digital Information Processing and Communications. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 188 (pp. 333–341). Berlin: Heidelberg Springer.Google Scholar
  112. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). (2017). Human development data (1990–2015). Retrieved from
  113. Wilen-Daugenti, T. (2009). Edu: Technology and learning environments in higher education. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yousef, A. (2013). The Cultural context of an educational reform: Perceived challenges to the implementation of blended learning at the School of Basic Education in Kuwait. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentGulf University for Science and TechnologyW. Mishref CityKuwait

Personalised recommendations