• Mahmoud M. El-KhoulyEmail author


This chapter surveys the development and current state of e-learning in the Arab Republic of Egypt. The author surveys the general social, economic, historical, and demographic background of Egypt and provides a review of its educational system. Analysis and statistics on the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure, usage of ICT in the country, and challenges and barriers to ICT implementation in education, business, and government are also provided. The chapter further explores in detail the major e-learning platforms, initiatives, and projects throughout the country. Information is additionally provided on accreditation, teacher training programs, and regulatory framework of e-learning. Finally, the author speculates on the future development of e-learning in Egypt. A comprehensive bibliography on e-learning scholarship related to the country, including government reports and websites, appears at the end of the chapter.


Egypt E-learning Web-based learning ICT Internet Education Distance learning 


  1. Abbas, T. (2016). Social factors affecting students’ acceptance of e-learning environments in developing and developed countries: A structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 7(2), 200–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbas, T. M. (2017). Human factors affecting university hospitality and tourism students’ intention to use e-learning: A comparative study between Egypt and the UK. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 16(4), 349–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdallah, M. M. S. (2007a). Exploring the process of integrating the internet into English language teaching. In Proceedings of the first academic conference for young researchers, Assiut, 24 April (pp. 1–9).Google Scholar
  4. Abdallah, M. M. S. (2007b). Web-based new literacies: Revisiting literacy in TESOL and EFL teacher education. In Proceedings of Australian Council of TESOL Associations (ACTA) International TESOL Conference, Gold Coast, 7–10 July, 2010 (pp. 1–9).Google Scholar
  5. Abdallah, M. M. S. (2011a). The Internet in EFL teacher education: Investigating the possibilities and challenges in a pre-service teacher education programme. Sino-US English Teaching, 8, 15–23.Google Scholar
  6. Abdallah, M. M. S. (2011b). Web-based new literacies and EFL curriculum design in teacher education: A design study for expanding EFL student teachers’ language-related literacy practices in an Egyptian pre-service teacher education programme. PhD thesis, University of Exeter, Exeter.Google Scholar
  7. Abdallah, M. M. S. (2013). A community of practice facilitated by Facebook for integrating new online EFL writing forms into Assiut University College of Education. Journal of New Valley Faculty of Education, 12(1), 581–631.Google Scholar
  8. Abdelaziz, M., Kamel, S. S. K., Karam, O., & Abdelrahman, A. (2011). Evaluation of e-learning program versus traditional lecture instruction for undergraduate nursing students in a faculty of nursing. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 6, 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Abdel-Fattah, A., & Suwaidan, M. M. (2007). Technologies of education in Arab schools: “Basic introductions to the student teacher”. Cairo: Institute of Educational Studies, University of Cairo.Google Scholar
  10. Abdelfatah, H. M. (2015). The effect of using a developed spoken social networking website on instructional technology students attitudes and habits in Egypt. In 2015 fifth international conference on e-learning (pp. 104–116).Google Scholar
  11. Abdel-Wahab, A. G. (2008). Modeling students’ intention to adopt e-learning: A case from Egypt. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education – TOJET, 9(1), 157–168. Retrieved from CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Abdrbo, A. A., & Hudak, C. (2010). Use of information systems in clinical training nursing students perspectives pilot study. In 2010 International Conference on Networking and Information Technology (ICNIT) (pp. 123–127). Retrieved from
  13. Aboshady, O. A., Radwan, A. E., Eltaweel, A. R., Azzam, A., Aboelnaga, A. A., Hashem, H. A., Darwish, S. Y., Salah, R., Kotb, O. N., Afifi, A. M., Salem, D. S., Hassouna, A., & Noaman, A. M. (2015). Perception and use of massive open online courses among medical students in a developing country: Multicentre cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 5(1), e006804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Abou El Seoud, M. S., Taj Eddin, I. A. T. F., & Nosseir, A. (2014). Using handheld mobile system for teaching illiterates. In 2014 international conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) (pp. 446–449). Retrieved from
  15. Abu Khatwah, S. A. (2013). Design an innovative virtual training environment and measure their effectiveness in the development of e-learning skills training and the trend towards default with faculty members. In 2013 fourth international conference on e-Learning best practices in management, design and development of e-Courses: Standards of excellence and creativity (p. 260).Google Scholar
  16. Adams, C., & Seagren, A. (2004). Distance education strategy: Mental models and strategic choices. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 7(2), 11–49.Google Scholar
  17. Adel, R. (2017). Manage perceived e-learning quality in Egyptian context. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 28(5–6), 600–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Afifi, G. (2011). E-learning as an alternative strategy for tourism higher education in Egypt. Quality Assurance in Education, 19(4), 357–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Alaa, S. (2006). The reality of web-based interaction in an Egyptian distance education course. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – TOJET, 5(1), 82–100.Google Scholar
  20. Al-Azab, M., & Utsumi, T. (2007). Creation of global university system in Egypt (GUS/Egypt). Retrieved from
  21. Al-Gawhary, W., & Kambouri, M. (2012). The impact of ICT as another route to overcome learning barriers for students with SEN: A case study in an Egyptian context. Paper presented at International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA).Google Scholar
  22. Ali, R. A., & Arshad, M. R. M. (2016). Perspectives of students’ behavior towards mobile learning (M-learning) in Egypt: An extension of the UTAUT model. Engineering Technology & Applied Science Research, 6(4), 1109–1114.Google Scholar
  23. Ali, N., & Kassem, U. (2006). Online faculty development: Faculty attitudes and performance. In T. Reeves & S. Yamashita (Eds.), Proceedings of world conference on e-learning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education 2006 (pp. 1568–1572). Chesapeake: AACE.Google Scholar
  24. Aliweh, A. M. (2011). Exploring Egyptian EFL students’ learning styles and satisfaction with web-based materials. CALICO Journal, 29(1), 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Al Saadany, M. (2013). The reality of the use of learning resource centers specialist for libraries and digital resources as a tool for continuing professional development: A comparative study between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. In 2013 fourth international conference on e-Learning best practices in management, design and development of e-courses: Standards of excellence and creativity (p. 245). Retrieved from
  26. Aly, M. A.-S. (2008). An evaluative study of some online websites for learning and teaching English as a foreign language. Retrieved from
  27. Amer, A. A., & Abdelhafez, H. A. (2012). Mobile learning concept and its effects on student’s attitudes case study: Egyptian faculties. In V. V. Das, E. Ariwa, & S. B. Rahayu (Eds.), SPIT 2011, LNICST 62 (pp. 265–268).Google Scholar
  28. American University of Cairo (AUC Egypt). (2012). American University of Cairo. Retrieved from
  29. Assante, D., & Sepe, R. (2011). An international cooperation experience between the International Telematic University Uninettuno and the Helwan University: The double degree in ICT engineering. In Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), 2011 IEEE (pp. 1011–1017). Retrieved from
  30. Ayad, F. S., Adly, I., El Qattan, Y., & Ghali, H. A. (2012). Web application for remote experimentation. In 2012 International Conference on Computer Systems and Industrial Informatics (ICCSII) (pp. 1–5). Retrieved from
  31. Ayad, E., & Yagi, Y. (2012). Virtual microscopy beyond the pyramids: Applications of WSI in Cairo University for e-education & telepathology. Analytical Cellular Pathology, 35(2012), 93–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ayad, E. (2013). E-education for medical students using WSI in Egypt. In Proceedings of diagnostic pathology. 11th European congress on telepathology and 5th international congress on virtual microscopy, Venice, 8(1) (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  33. Azza Ashraf , M. A. R. (2011). The Effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd primary graders’ writing skills. M.Ed thesis, Ain Shams University, Ain Shams.Google Scholar
  34. Badawi, M. F. (2009). Using blended learning for enhancing EFL prospective teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and performance. Paper presented at learning & language–The spirit of the age conference, Cairo, March 14–15, 2009.Google Scholar
  35. Badr, A. Z. (2013). Plenary talk III: Impact of technology on education: Examples of what has been achieved in Egypt. In 2013 8th International Conference on Computer Engineering & Systems (ICCES) (pp. xliii). Retrieved from
  36. Beckstrom, M., Croasdale, H., Riad, S. M., & Kamel, M. (2004). Assessment of Egypt’s e-learning readiness. Retrieved from
  37. Bello, U. L., Hassan, L. A. E. A. E., Yunusa, U., Abdulrashid, I., Usman, R. H., & Nasidi, K. N. (2017). Challenges of information and communication technology utilization among undergraduate community health nursing students in Tanta University, Egypt. American Journal of Nursing, 6(3), 274–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Biasutti, M., & EL-Deghaidy, H. (2012). Using Wiki in teacher education: Impact on knowledge management processes and student satisfaction. Computers & Education, 59, 861–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Brown, N. E., & Bussert, K. (2007). Information literacy 2.0: Empowering students through personal engagement. Paper presented at international educational technology conference, 2007.Google Scholar
  40. Daif, A. R., & Rizkaa, M. A. (2013). An enhanced model for monitoring learners’ performance in a collaborative e-learning environment. In 2013 second International Conference on e-Learning and e-Technologies in Education (ICEEE) (pp. 313–317). Retrieved from
  41. Dakroury, Y. H. (2008). Egyptian E-learning University: Case study. In ITI 6th International Conference on Information & Communications Technology 2008. ICICT 2008 (pp. 117–122). Retrieved from
  42. El-Seoud, S. A., El-Khouly, M., & Taj-Eddin, I. A. T. F. (2016). Motivation in E-learning: How do we keep learners motivated in an e-learning environment? In ICFET 2015 conference, China.Google Scholar
  43. Egyptian E-Learning University (EELU). (2014). History. Retrieved from
  44. Eid, E. E. D. M., & Mohamed, M. M. (2009). Elearning and modern learning management systems. In Conference proceedings of eLearning and Software for Education (eLSE) 01 (pp. 143–150).Google Scholar
  45. Eid, E. E. D. M., El Halim, O. A., & Fathy, N. I. (2010). Reality of using e-learning quality criteria of designing computer courses’ learning programs at high education in Egypt (case study). In Conference proceedings of eLearning and Software for Education (eLSE) (pp. 129–34).Google Scholar
  46. E-Learning Competence Center (ELCC). (2017). Inspiring excellence and innovation. Retrieved from
  47. El-Rahman, S. A. (2015). A web-based course and instructor online evaluation system. In 2015 fifth international conference on e-Learning (pp. 144–52).Google Scholar
  48. El Azab, S., Al Azab, M., & Utsumi, P. E. T. (2013). A Cloud computing technology for knowledge centers. In 2013 fourth international conference on e-Learning “Best practices in management, design and development of e-Courses: Standards of excellence and creativity” (pp. 161–168). Retrieved from
  49. El-Bakry, H. M., & Mastorakis, N. (2009). Realization of E-University for distance learning. WSEAS Transactions on Computers, 8(1), 48–62.Google Scholar
  50. El-Deghaidy, H., & Nouby, A. (2008). Effectiveness of a blended e-learning cooperative approach in an Egyptian teacher education programme. Computers & Education, 51(3), 988–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. El-Ebyary, K., & Windeatt, S. (2010). The impact of computer-based feedback on students’ written work. International Journal of English Studies, 10(2), 121–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. El-Gamal, S. (2014a). The Perception of students regarding e-learning implementation in Egyptian universities: The case of Arab academy for science and technology. In eL&mL 2011: The third international conference on mobile, hybrid, and on-line Learning (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  53. El-Gamal, S. (2014b). An investigation of electronic learning in higher education: The Egyptian context. Doctoral dissertation, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne. Retrieved from
  54. El-Halawany, H., & Huwail, E. I. (2008). Malaysian smart schools: A fruitful case study for analysis to synopsize lessons applicable to the Egyptian context. International Journal of Education and Development Using ICT, 4(2). Retrieved from
  55. El-Khouly, M., Far, B. H., & Koono, Z. (1999). A multi-agent based tutoring system (IATCL) for teaching computer programming language. In ICCE99 7th International Conference On Computers in Education, Chiba, November 4–7, 1999.Google Scholar
  56. El-Khouly, M., Far, B. H., & Koono, Z. (2000). Teaching computer programming languages through WWW. In International conference on mathematics/science education and technology (1), (pp. 145–150).Google Scholar
  57. El-Khouly, M. M. (2002). Spider Tutoring System for teaching computer programming languages, In E-Learn 2002-World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education. Montreal, Canada, October 15–19, 2002.Google Scholar
  58. El-Khouly, M. M. (2004a). Web-based assessment of a programming class, In Proceedings of Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications (ICTTA) (pp. 109–110), 19–23 April, Damascus, Syria.Google Scholar
  59. El-Khouly, M. M. (2004b). An Evaluation of using web-based course to enhance educational process in Qatar, 31 May – 2 June, ITHET 2004, Turkey.Google Scholar
  60. El-Khouly, M. M. (2005). E-learning model using ASP. Journal of Institute of Mathematics & Computer Sciences, 16(2).Google Scholar
  61. El-Khouly, M. M, El-Seoud, S. A., Rashad, A. M., & El-Hossany, N. M. (2005). A tutoring course on radiation physics, In 4th International Internet Education Conference (ICT-Learn 2005): Towards Information Society, WSIS II, September 6–8, 2005, Cairo, Egypt.Google Scholar
  62. El-Khouly, M. M., & El-Seoud, S. A. (2005a). Using web-based course to enhance educational process in Qatar – A Case study, In 1st International E-Business Conference, 23–25 June, Tunisie.Google Scholar
  63. El-Khouly, M. M., & El-Seoud, M. M. (2005b). On line student model, In 1st International Conference on E-Business and E-Learning. PSUT, Amman, Jordan, May 23–24.Google Scholar
  64. El-Khouly, M. M. (2006). Assessment checking for web-based courses. Journal of Institute of Mathematics & Computer Sciences, 17(1).Google Scholar
  65. El-Khouly, M. M. (2007a). Web-based graduate diploma in computer sciences. e-Learning, 4(4), 464ff. Scholar
  66. El-Khouly, M. M. (2007b). Graduate diploma in computer sciences through WWW – A case study. In IADIS International conference e-learning 2007, vol. II (pp. 267–271). Lisbon, Portugal, 6-8 July 2007.Google Scholar
  67. El-Khouly, M. M. (2010). eLearning in Egypt. In U. Demiry (Ed.), Cases on challenges facing e-learning and national development: Institutional studies and practices (Vol. 1). Eskişehir-Turkey: Anadolu University.Google Scholar
  68. El-Khouly, M. M., & El-Seoud, S. A. (2006). Web-based learning systems from HTML to MOODLE – A Case Study –”, In ICL 2006 Conference. September 27–29, 2006, Villach, Austria.Google Scholar
  69. El Maadawi, Z. M. (2010). The role of e-learning in integration of basic and clinical medical sciences, complete blood count (CBC) e-learning course: A case study from Kasr Aliny School of Medicine, Cairo University. In Proceedings of the fifth conference of learning international networks consortium. Retrieved from
  70. El-Nemer, A., & Marzouk, T. (2014). Egyptian students’ experience of e-maternity course. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(39), 191–203.Google Scholar
  71. El-Razek, S. M., El-Bakry, H. M., El-Wahed, W. F., & Mastorakis, N. (2010). Collaborative virtual environment model for medical e-learning. In Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS international conference on applied computer and applied computational science (pp. 191–195).Google Scholar
  72. Elrefaei, H., Aboelfadel, T., Elmeseery, M., Elmofty, A., & Shafee, M. (2007). Online library of scientific models – A new way to teach, learn, and share learning experience. International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE), 4(2), n.p. Retrieved from
  73. Eraqi, M. I., Abou-Alam, W., Belal, M. A., & Fahmi, T. (2011). Attitudes of undergraduate students toward e-learning in tourism: The case of Egypt. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 11, 325–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. El-Sabagh, H. A. E. (2011). The impact of a web-based virtual lab on the development of students’ conceptual understanding and science process skills (Doctoral dissertation). Dresden: Technische Universität Dresden.Google Scholar
  75. El Sayed, N. A. M., Zayed, H. H., & Sharawy, M. I. (2010). ARSC: Augmented reality student card. In 2010 International Computer Engineering Conference (ICENCO) (pp. 113–120). Retrieved from
  76. El Sebai, N. (2006). The Egyptian higher education system: Towards better quality in the future. Journal of Futures Studies, 11(2), 75–92. Retrieved from 100000b7ad2db/apps/Publication/5-egypt%20(4).pdf Google Scholar
  77. El Seoud, M. S. A., Seddiek, N., Taj Eddin, I. A. T. F., Ghenghesh, P., Nosseir, A., & El Khouly, M. M. (2013). E-learning and motivation effects on Egyptian higher education. In 2013 international conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) (pp. 689–695). Retrieved from
  78. El-Seoud, M. S. A., El-Khouly, M., & Taj-Eddin, I. A. T. F. (2015). Strategies to enhance learner’s motivation in e-learning environment. In Proceedings of 2015 international conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) (pp. 944–949).Google Scholar
  79. El Tantawi, M. M. A., & Saleh, S. M. (2008). Attitudes of dental students towards using computers in education–a mixed design study. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 14(3), 675–685.Google Scholar
  80. El Tantawi, M. M. A., El Kashlan, M. K., & Saeed, Y. M. (2013). Assessment of the efficacy of Second Life, a virtual learning environment, in dental education. Journal of Dental Education, 77(12), 1639–1652.Google Scholar
  81. El Tantawi, M. M. A., Abdelsalam, M. M. A., Mourady, A. M., & Elrifae, I. M. B. (2015). E-Assessment in a limited-resources dental school using an open-source learning management system. Journal of Dental Education, 79, 571–583.Google Scholar
  82. Elyamany, H. F., & Yousef, A. H. (2013). A Mobile-quiz application in Egypt. In 2013 fourth international conference on e-Learning “Best practices in management, design and development of e-Courses: Standards of excellence and creativity” (pp. 325–329). Retrieved from
  83. El-Zayat, H., Nour-Eldin, H., & El-Sherbiny, M. (2005). Instructors’ uses of the Internet in Alexandria University. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2005 (pp. 1612–1620). Chesapeake: AACE.Google Scholar
  84. El-Zayat, M. (2009). Strategy to improve e-learning adoption, implementation and development in higher education in Egypt. Doctoral dissertation, University of Sunderland Press, Sunderland.Google Scholar
  85. England, L. (2007). Technology applications in English language teaching in Egyptian universities: A developing relationship. CALICO Journal, 24(2), 381–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Fahim, Y. (2009). Financing higher education in Egypt. In Regional conference on access and equity in financing higher education in Arab countries. June 17–18.Google Scholar
  87. Fahmy, H. M. A., & Ghoneim, S. A. (2011). PodBoard: Podcastmg braced blended learning environment. In 2011 19th Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR) (pp. 1191–1194). Retrieved from
  88. Fakhr, N., & Khalil, N. (2016). Large classroom predicament resolved: Tackk and Socrative in the flipped approach. In Conference proceedings ICT for language learning. Retrieved from
  89. Farag, M., & Shemy, N. (2011). Course delivery through the web: Effects of linear/nonlinear navigation and individual differences in online learning. International Journal on E-Learning, 10(3), 243–271.Google Scholar
  90. Farahat, T. (2012). Applying the technology acceptance model to online learning in the Egyptian universities. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 64(2012), 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Fathy, N. I. (2008). Designing an electronic instructional technology based program to develop English language skills for specific purposes. Masters thesis, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.Google Scholar
  92. Fayek, & Magda, B. (2004). E-Learning and its applications in Egypt. Retrieved from
  93. Fontana, F., Giaconia, A., Cosimi, E., & Ponzo, G. (2017). 3D Mobile e-Learning system to manage synchronous and asynchronous video lectures: NetLesson 16 and its application to a multi-generation solar plant built in Egypt. In EdMedia: World conference on educational media and technology (pp. 340–349). Chesapeake: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).Google Scholar
  94. Frehywot, S., Vovides, Y., Talib, Z., Mikhail, N., Ross, H., Wohltjen, H., Bedada, S., & Scott, J. (2013). E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low- and middle-income countries. Human Resources for Health, 11(4), 4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hassan, R. E. H. (2010). Software application for computer aided vocabulary learning in a blended learning environment. Cairo: Doctoral dissertation, American University in Cairo.Google Scholar
  96. Hassan, A. E., & Ibrahim, M. E. (2010). Designing quality e-learning environments for higher education. Educational Research, 1(6), 186–197.Google Scholar
  97. Headara, M. M., Elarefb, N., & Yacout, O. M. (2013). Antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction with e-learning: The case of private universities in Egypt. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 23(2), 226–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Heba, E. D., & Nouby, A. (2008). Effectiveness of a blended e-learning cooperative approach in an Egyptian teacher education programme. Computers & Education, 51(3), 988–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hegazy, A., & Radwan, N. (2010). Investigating learner perceptions, preferences and adaptation of e-learning services in Egypt. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Education and Management Technology (ICEMT) (pp. 167–172).Google Scholar
  100. Henawy, Z. G., & Mansor, M. M. (2013). The effect of using an interactive multimedia electronic book on developing achievement, performance of geometry skills, and the attitude towards its use at the primary school. In 2013 fourth international conference on e-Learning “Best practices in management, design and development of e-Courses: Standards of excellence and creativity” (pp. 122–155). Retrieved from
  101. Hendy, M. H. (2010). The effect of a proposed distant training program on Egyptian technical secondary school teachers’ awareness of information and communication technology. In EDULEARN10 Proceedings (pp. 851–858).Google Scholar
  102. Herrera, L. (2012). Youth and citizenship in the digital age: A view from Egypt. Harvard Educational Review, 82(3), 333–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Holmes, M. E. (2008). Higher education reform in Egypt: Preparing graduates for Egypt’s changing political economy. Education Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 1(3), 175–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hone, K. S., & El Said, G. R. (2016). Exploring the factors affecting MOOC retention: A survey study. Computers & Education, 98, 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hosny, S., Mishriky, A. M., & Youssef, M. (2008). Introducing computer-assisted training sessions in the clinical skills lab at the Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University. Medical Teacher, 30(2), E35–E40. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hussein Ali, I. E. (2010). Measuring students e-readiness for e-learning at Egyptian faculties of tourism and hotels. In Proceedings of conference on eLearning and software for education, Issue 1 (pp. 145–154).Google Scholar
  107. Hussein, I. (2010). Measuring staff members e-readiness towards e-learning at Egyptian faculties of tourism and hotels. Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, 3(1), 28–35.Google Scholar
  108. Hussein, M. M. A. (2012). Médiations numériques et enseignement des sciences sociales dans le contexte éducatif égyptien (Doctoral dissertation). Bourdeaux: Université Michel de Montaigne – Bordeaux III.Google Scholar
  109. Hussein, R., & Khalifa, A. (2011). Biomedical and health informatics education and research at the information Technology Institute in Egypt. Yearbook of Medical Informatics, 6(1), 161–168.Google Scholar
  110. Ibrahim, M., & Kamel, S. (2003). Effectiveness and applicability of Internet-based training in the corporation – Case of Egypt. In Proceedings of the 36th annual Hawaii international conference on system sciences.
  111. Issa, A. T., & Siddiek, A. G. (2012). Higher education in the Arab world & challenges of labor market. International Journal of Business and Social, 3(2), 146–151.Google Scholar
  112. Johnstone, D. (2009). Higher education finance and cost-sharing in Egypt. Retrieved from
  113. Johnstone, D. B., & Marcucci, P. N. (2007). Worldwide trends in higher education finance: Cost-sharing, student loans, and the support of academic research. Retrieved from
  114. Kamel, S., & Hussein, M. (2002). The emergence of e-commerce in a developing nation case study. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 10(2), 146–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kamel, S., & Ibrahim, M. (2003). Electronic training at the corporate level in Egypt: Applicability and effectiveness. Industry and Higher Education, 17(6), 409–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kandel, A., El Khouly, M. M., & AbdEl Hakeem, M. (2004). Tutoring system for teaching HTML through WWW. In Proceedings of the 2004 international conference on information and communication technologies: From theory to applications (pp. 107–108). Retrieved from
  117. Kassab, S. E., Al-shafei, A., Salem, H. A., & Otoom, S. (2015). Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: A path analysis. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 2015(6), 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Khedr, A. E., & Idrees, A. M. (2017). Enhanced e-learning system for e-courses based on cloud computing. Journal of Computers, 12(1), 10–19.Google Scholar
  119. El Kosheiry, A., & Elazhary, M. (2001). E-Learning versus traditional education for adults. In Proceedings of the BITWorld conference information technology in Egypt: Challenges & Impact, Cairo, 4–6 June.Google Scholar
  120. Labib, N. M., & Mostafa, R. H. A. (2015). Determinants of social networks usage in collaborative learning: Evidence from Egypt. Procedia Computer Science, 65(2015), 432–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lacina, J. G. (2005). Preparing for multicultural schools: Teacher candidates dialogue online with teachers from Egypt, Japan, Ghana, and the U.S. Teacher Education Quarterly, 32(1), 61–75.Google Scholar
  122. Leach, J., Patel, R., Peters, A., Power, T., Ahmed, A., & Makalima, S. (2004). Deep impact: A study of the use of hand-held computers for teacher professional development in primary schools in the global south. European Journal of Teacher Education, 27(1), 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Loveluck, L. (2012). Education in Egypt: Key challenges. Chatham House. Retrieved from
  124. Male, G., & Pattinson, C. (2011). Enhancing the quality of e-learning through mobile technology: A socio-cultural and technology perspective towards quality e-learning applications. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 26(5), 331–344. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. MCIT (Egyptian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology). (2008). The Egyptian education initiative: Key to success. Retrieved from
  126. MCIT (Egyptian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology). (2010). Egyptian education initiative. Retrieved from
  127. MCIT (Egyptian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology). (2013). National ICT strategy 2012–2017: Towards a digital society and knowledge-based economy. Retrieved from
  128. Meawad, F. (2011). The virtual agile enterprise: Making the most of a software engineering course. In 24th IEEE-CS Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T), 2011 (pp. 324–332). Retrieved from
  129. Mohammad, E. (2008). Framework for e-learning strategy in the Egyptian universities. In IADIS international conference on e-learning, 21–26.Google Scholar
  130. Mosbah, M. M., Alnashar, H. S., & Abou El Nasr, M. (2014). Cloud computing framework for solving Egyptian higher education. In 2014 Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communications (ICACC) (pp. 208–213). Retrieved from
  131. Mustafa, H. M. H., Al Hamadi, A., Hassan, M. M., Al Ghamdi, S. A., & Khedr, A. A. (2013). On assessment of students’ academic achievement considering categorized individual differences at engineering education (Neural Networks Approach). In 2013 International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET) (pp. 1–10). Retrieved from
  132. Nawara, W., & Hussein, G. (2009). Using e-learning technologies in developing remeditainment products for the treatment of children with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). In T. Bastiaens et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2009 (pp. 565–574). Chesapeake: AACE.Google Scholar
  133. NAQAA. (2012). National authority for quality assurance and accreditation of education – Egypt. Retrieved from
  134. Nissim, C. (2004). Teaching Islam and Arabic over the internet. CALICO Journal, 21(3), 561–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nooura, A. T., & Hubbard, N. (2015). Self-determination theory: Opportunities and challenges for blended e-learning in motivating Egyptian learners. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 182, 513–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Osman, H., & El-Khouly, M. M. (1993). Tutoring education system for BASIC language, In 3rd Conference in Computer between theory and application. Marina Time Transportation Academy, Alexandria, Egypt.Google Scholar
  137. Osmane, M. (2010). First e-learning degree in Egypt sees the light: Case study. Retrieved from
  138. Othman, S. (2015). Vers une formation réflexive aux TIC des futurs enseignants égyptiens de langues étrangères. In La formation initiale des enseignants de français langue étrangère (pp. 154–160). Bruxelles: FIPF.Google Scholar
  139. Radwan, A. S., Fathy, H., Okasha, H. S., Elkhouly, E. H., Hamed, N. A., & Morsi, M. G. (2012). Electronic learning and high technology education versus traditional face to face one: 3 years experience (2010–2012) in Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Egypt. Life Science Journal, 9(2), 155–160.Google Scholar
  140. Riad, A. M., El-Minir, H. K., & El-Ghareeb, H. A. (2009). Evaluation of utilizing service oriented architecture as a suitable solution to align university management information systems and learning management systems. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 10(4), 27–40.Google Scholar
  141. Rossiter, D. (1997). The digital edge?: Teaching and learning in the knowledge age. Queensland: QUT Publications and Printery.Google Scholar
  142. Sadik, A., & Reisman, S. (2004). Design and implementation of a web-based learning environment: Lessons learned. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 5(3), 157–171.Google Scholar
  143. Sadik, A. (2006a). Factors influencing teachers’ attitudes toward personal use and school use of computers: New evidence from a developing nation. Evaluation Review, 30(1), 86–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Sadik, A. (2006b). The reality of web-based interaction in an Egyptian distance education course. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – TOJET, 5(1), 82–100.Google Scholar
  145. Sadik, A. (2007). The readiness of faculty members to develop and implement e-learning: The case of an Egyptian university. International Journal on E-Learning, 6(3), 433–453.Google Scholar
  146. Sadik, A. (2008). Digital storytelling: A meaningful technology-integrated approach for engaged student learning. Education Technology Research Development, 56(4), 487–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Safwat, A., & Pourabdollah, A. (2009). E-learning for healthcare professionals towards HIS in Egypt. In 2009 ITI 7th International Conference on Communications and Information Technology (ICICT) (pp. 25–29). Retrieved from
  148. Salama, M., Shawish, A. (2014). Designing an innovative computer networking course using Junosphere. In 16th International Conference on Computer Modelling and Simulation (UKSim), UKSim-AMSS (pp. 182–188). Retrieved from
  149. Saleh, A. F. M., & Farouk, A. F. A. (2013). Students with disabilities’ attitudes towards e-learning courses in developing countries. In 2013 fourth international conference on e-Learning “Best practices in management, design and development of e-Courses: Standards of excellence and creativity” (pp. 253–257). Retrieved from
  150. Salem, A.-B. M. (n.d.). Intelligent technologies for medical elearning. Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina: Applicazioni Informatiche e Telematiche in Medicina Anno, 6(4), 72–76.Google Scholar
  151. Salim, A., Hassan, S., Hamdi, S., Youssef, S., Adel, H., Khattab, S., & El Ramly, M. (2010). On using 3D animation for teaching computer programming in Cairo University. In The 7th International Conference on Informatics and Systems (INFOS) (pp. 1–5). Retrieved from
  152. Sayed, M.S., Mostafa, N.H. (2012). Using the social networks on the internet to establish mechatronics network. In Mechatronics (MECATRONICS), 2012 9th France-Japan & 7th Europe-Asia congress on and Research and Education in Mechatronics (REM) (pp. 502–503). Retrieved from
  153. Sharkawy, B., & Meawad, F. (2009). Instant feedback using mobile messaging technologies. In Third international conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies, 2009. NGMAST ’09 (pp. 539–544). Retrieved from
  154. Sherif, A., & Mekkawi, H. (2010). Excavation game: Computer-aided-learning tool for teaching construction engineering decision making. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 136(4), 188–196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Shohieb, S. M., Hassan, A. E., Elsoud, M. A., & Kandil, M. S. (2009). Accessibility system for deaf Arab students. In 2009 ITI 7th International Conference on Communications and Information Technology (ICICT) (pp. 57–60). Retrieved from
  156. Shoukry, L., Sturm, C., & Galal Edeen, G.H. (2012). Arab preschoolers, interactive media and early literacy development. In 2012 International Conference on e-Learning and e-Technologies in Education (ICEEE) (pp. 43–48). Retrieved from
  157. Sobaih, A. E. E., Moustafa, M. A., Ghandforoush, P., & Khan, M. (2016). To use or not to use? Social media in higher education in developing countries. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 296–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Warschauer, M. (2003). Dissecting the “digital divide”: A case study in Egypt. Information Society, 19(4), 297–304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Warschauer, M. (2004). The Rhetoric and reality of aid: Promoting educational technology in Egypt. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 2(3), 377–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., Schroeder, U., & Wosnitza, M. (2015). A usability evaluation of a blended MOOC environment: An experimental case study. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(2), 69–93. Retrieved from CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Information Technology DepartmentHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations