Advertisement

High-Pressure Synthesis and Later Developments

  • Anthony S. Travis
Chapter

Abstract

The commercial development of high pressure synthesis has been largely ‘hydrogenation,’ whether of nitrogen to produce ammonia, or of carbon monoxide to produce methanol, or of various hydrocarbons to produce more valuable products. In this latter field, by high pressure synthesis, it is now possible for the first time to change or control the ratio of hydrogen to carbon atoms in any hydrocarbon, and even to change aliphatic compounds to naphthenic and aromatic bodies.

References

  1. 1.
    Reinhardt C (1998). Basic research in industry: two case studies at I.G. Farbenindustrie AG in the 1920’s and 1930’s. In: Travis AS, Schröter HG, Homburg E, Morris PJT (eds), Determinants in the evolution of the European chemical industry, 1900–1939: new technologies, political frameworks, markets and companies. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 67–88, on 81–86.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Synthetic methanol controversy (1925) Ind Eng Chem 17(8)(August):859.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Methanol developments (1925) Ind Eng Chem 17(8)(August):772–773.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lormand L (1925) Industrial production of synthetic methanol. Ind Eng Chem 17(4)(April):430–432.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stranges A (2000) Germany’s synthetic fuel industry, 1927–1945. In: Lesch JE (ed), The German chemical industry in the twentieth century. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 147–216, on 173.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hughes TP (1969) Technological momentum in history: hydrogenation in Germany, 1898–1933. Past and Present 44:106–132.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stranges AN (1984) Friedrich Bergius and the rise of the German synthetic fuel industry. Isis 75(4):643–667.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. A. Humphrey to members of the [ICI] executive committee, 18 October 1926. Papers of Herbert Alfred Humphrey, Archives, Imperial College London, item E33.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Egloff G (1938) Motor fuel economy of Europe. Ind Eng Chem 30(10)(October):1091–1104.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stranges AN (1985) From Birmingham to Billingham: high pressure coal hydrogenation in Britain. Technology and Culture 26(4):726–757.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hayes P (2001) Industry and ideology. I.G. Farben in the Nazi era. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 37–44.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krammer A (1978) Fueling the Third Reich. Technology and Culture 19(3):394–422.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jones WI (1934) Hydrogenation of coal. J Soc Chem Ind 53(15)(13 April):321–326 (Chem Ind London).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Michels MAJ (2016) Antonius Michels, his high-pressure work, and the origins of polyethylene. SHAC Spring Meeting, High pressure in the interwar period, Science Museum London, 11 February 2016.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gibson RO (1933) The viscosity of gases at high pressure. HJ Paris, Amsterdam, 1933. Copy with Gerald Holten Collection, letters boxes, pressure E-GO, at Sidney M. Edelstein Library for the History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and Medicine, National Library of Israel.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gibson RO (1980) The father of industrial progress. Chem Ind, London, no.16 (16 August), pp 635–641.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harness A (c. 1980) The story of polythene. Plastics Processing Industry Training Board, Brentford Middlesex, p 2.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Travis AS (1998) Modernizing industrial organic chemistry: Great Britain between two world wars. In: Travis AS, Schröter HG, Homburg E, Morris PJT (eds), Determinants in the evolution of the European chemical industry, 1900–1939: new technologies, political frameworks, markets and companies. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 171–198, on 190–192.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morris PJT (1983) The industrial history of acetylene: the rise and fall of a chemical feedstock. Chem Ind, London, no. 18 (19 September), pp 710–715.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Travis AS (2007) Unintended technology transfer: acetylene chemistry in the United States. Bull Hist Chem 32(1)(2007):27–34.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smil V (2001) Enriching the earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the transformation of world food production. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 122–127.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maxwell GR (2004) Synthetic nitrogen products: a practical guide to the products and processes. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cariati V (2009) Nata due volte. L’avventura bella della Ammonia Casale. Impiantistica Italania, no. 5 (September–October), pp 35–43.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Belchetz L (1955) Refining processes and plant. In: Evans RB, Samuel DL, Sell G (eds), Reviews of petroleum technology, vol. XIV (covering 1952–1954). The Institute of Petroleum, London, pp 57–87, on 75.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Quaderni dell’ingegnere chimico italiano (1975) 11(10)(October):155–160.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pattabathula V, Robertson J (2016) Introduction to ammonia production. Chem Eng Progress (September), pp 69–75.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    Travis AS (2004) Dyes made in America. the Calco Chemical Company, American Cyanamid and the Raritan River. Edelstein Center, Jerusalem, pp 120–124.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haynes W [1957] On the chemical frontier: the Cyanamid Story. Copy held at Sidney M. Edelstein Library for the History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and Medicine, National Library of Israel, pp 80–81.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim, D-W (2004) Two chemists in two Korea’s. Ambix 51(1):67–84, on 79–83.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony S. Travis
    • 1
  1. 1.Sidney M. Edelstein Center for the History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and MedicineThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations