CT and MRI Findings in Urothelial Cancer
Although the evaluation of the urinary bladder may be performed with direct visualization using cystoscopy, the tumors in the upper urinary tract are mainly diagnosed using imaging methods. Moreover, urothelial cancer is commonly multifocal; thus, a thorough evaluation of the whole urinary tract is important in patients with urothelial cancer. Technical advances of multidetector CT and MRI allow these modalities to be useful adjuncts to cystoscopic evaluation by providing critical information about the diagnosis, staging, and surveillance of these patients. CT urography is currently the preferred imaging modality for the evaluation of hematuria, while MRI can be considered for appropriate indications, as the case of compromised renal function, severe iodinated contrast allergy, or pregnancy (to whom radiation exposure is better to be avoided).
KeywordsUrothelial cancer CT urography Bladder cancer Lower urinary tract malignancy Upper urinary tract malignancy