Adaptation Strategies and Defence Mechanisms of Plants During Environmental Stress

  • E. Lamalakshmi Devi
  • Sudhir Kumar
  • T. Basanta Singh
  • Susheel K. Sharma
  • Aruna Beemrote
  • Chingakham Premabati Devi
  • S. K. Chongtham
  • Chongtham Henary Singh
  • Rupert Anand Yumlembam
  • A. Haribhushan
  • N. Prakash
  • Shabir H. WaniEmail author


Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect plant growth, development and crop productivity. To cope up all these stresses, plant develops certain efficient strategies to avoid or tolerate the stresses which allow them to adapt and defense themselves from stress situations. Such adaptation strategies are at morphological, anatomical, biochemical and molecular levels. Molecular crosstalk, epigenetic memories, reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling, accumulation of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid, change in redox status and inorganic ion fluxes, R-gene resistance and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are some of the modifications/mechanisms adopted by plants to adapt and defense themselves from the environmental stress. The novel “omics” technologies allow the researchers to identify the genetics behind plant stress response and adaptation and provide unbiased data that can be precisely used to investigate the complex interplay between the plants, its metabolism and the stress environment.


Stress Adaptation strategies Molecular crosstalk Epigenetic memories 


  1. Abe H, Urao T, Ito T et al (2003) Arabidopsis AtMYC2 (bHLH) and AtMYB2 (MYB) function as transcriptional activators in abscisic acid signaling. Plant Cell 15:63–78PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acosta-Motos JR, Ortuño MF, Bernal-Vicente A et al (2017) Plant responses to salt stress: adaptive mechanisms. Agronomy 7(18):1–38. doi: 10.3390/agronomy7010018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarwal PK, Jha B (2010) Transcription factors in plants and ABA dependent and independent abiotic stress signaling. Biol Plant 54(2):201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agarwal M, Hao Y, Kapoor A et al (2006) A R2R3 type MYB transcription factor is involved in the cold regulation of CBF genes and in acquired freezing tolerance. J Biol Chem 281(49):37636–37645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agrawal AA, Fishbein M, Jetter R et al (2009) Phylogenetic ecology of leaf surface traits in the milkweeds (Asclepias spp.): chemistry, ecophysiology, and insect behavior. New Phytol 183:848–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Agrios GN (2005) Plant pathology. Elsevier Academic Press, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahmed F, Ra M, Ismail MR et al (2012) Waterlogging tolerance of crops: breeding, mechanism of tolerance, molecular approaches, and future prospects. Biomed Res Int. doi: 10.1155/2013/963525CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Ali S, Farooq MA, Yasmeen T et al (2013) The influence of silicon on barley growth, photosynthesis and ultra-structure under chromium stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 89:66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Álvarez S, Sánchez-Blanco MJ (2014) Long-term effect of salinity on plant quality, water relations, photosynthetic parameters and ion distribution in Callistemon citrinus. Plant Biol 16:757–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alves ES, Moura MB, Domingos M (2008) Structural analysis of Tillandsia usneoides L. exposed to air pollutants in São Paulo City-Brazil. Water Air Soil Pollut 189(1–4):61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Amir HM, Lee Y, Cho JI et al (2010) The bZIP transcription factor OsABF1 is an ABA responsive element binding factor that enhances abiotic stress signaling in rice. Plant Mol Biol 72:557–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ananthakrishnan TN (ed) (1994) Functional dynamics of phytophagous insects. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  13. Anon S, Fernandez JA, Franco JA et al (2004) Effects of water stress and night temperature preconditioning on water relations and morphological and anatomical changes of Lotus creticus plants. Sci Hortic 101:333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Araus JL (2002) Physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield under potential and stress conditions: current research trends on carbon assimilation. In: Slafer GA, Molina Cano JL, Savin R, Araus JL, Romagosa I (eds) Barley science: recent advances from molecular biology to agronomy of yield and quality. Food Product Press, The Harworth Press, New York, pp 269–306Google Scholar
  15. Arora A, Sairam RK, Sriuastava GC (2002) Oxidative stress and antioxidative system in plants. Curr Sci 82:1227–1238Google Scholar
  16. Aschi-Smiti S, Chaibi W, Brouquisse R, et al (2004) Assessment of enzyme induction and aerenchyma formation as mechanisms for flooding tolerance in Trifolium subterraneum ‘Park’. Ann Bot 91:195–204PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ashraf M, Harris JC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci 166:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ashraf MA, Ahmad MSA, Ashraf M, Al-Qurainy F, Ashraf MY (2011) Alleviation of waterlogging stress in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by exogenous application of potassium in soil and as a foliar spray. Crop Pasture Sci 62(1):25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Asselbergh B, Curvers K, Franca SC et al (2007) Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in sitiens, an abscisic acid-deficient tomato mutant, involves timely production of hydrogen peroxide and cell wall modifications in the epidermis. Plant Physiol 144:1863–1877PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Asthir B (2015) Mechanisms of heat tolerance in crop plants. Biol Plant 59(4):620–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Atkinson NJ, Urwin PE (2012) The interaction of plant biotic and abiotic stresses: from genes to field. J Exp Bot 63(10):3523–3544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bacanamwo M, Purcell LC (1999) Soybean root morphological and anatomical traits associated with acclimation to flooding. Crop Sci 39:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bansal KC, Singh AK, Wani SH (2012) Plastid transformation for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In: Shabala S, Cuin TA (eds) Plant salt tolerance: methods and protocols, methods in molecular biology, vol 913. Humana press, USA, pp 351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Baralabai VC, Vivekanandan M (1996) Foliar application of electrostatic precipitator dust on growth, stomata and leaf biochemistry in certain legume crops. Rev Brasil Fisiol Veg 8:7–14Google Scholar
  25. Beck EH, Fettig S, Knake C, Hartig K, Bhattarai T (2007) Specific and unspecific responses of plants to cold and drought stress. J Biosci 32:501–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Beckman CH (1964) Host responses to vascular infection. Annu Rev Phytopathol 2:231–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bestwick CS, Bennett MH, Mansfield JW (1995) Hrp mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola induces cell wall alterations but not membrane damage leading to the hypersensitive reaction in lettuce. Plant Physiol 108:503–516PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bender CL, Chaidez FA, Gross DC (1999) Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63(2):266–292 (Washington)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Blilou I, Bueno P, Ocampo JA, García-Garrido JM (2000) Induction of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in tobacco roots inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal Glomus mosseae. Mycol Res 104:722–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bindschedler LV, Whitelegge JP, Millar DJ, et al (2006) A two component chitin binding protein from French bean association of proline rich protein with a cysteine rich polypeptide. FEBS Lett 580:1541–1546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Blum A (2005) Drought resistance, water-use efficiency, and yield potential—are they compatible, dissonant, or mutually exclusive? Aust J Agric Res 56:1159–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Blumwald E, Anil G, Allen G (2004) New directions for a diverse planet. In: Proceedings 4th international crop science congress, 26 Sept–1 Oct 2004, Brisbane, Australia. CD-ROM;
  33. Bouaziz D, Charfeddine M, Jbir R et al (2015) Identification and functional characterization of ten AP2/ERF genes in potato. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 123(1):155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bradley DJ, Kjellbom I, Lamb CJ (1992) Elicitor-and wound induced oxidative cross-linking of a plant cell wall proline-rich protein: A novel, rapid defense response. Cell 70:21–30Google Scholar
  35. Brian CF, Gwyn AB (2008) An overview of plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores. Plant Health Instructor. doi: 10.1094/PHI-I-2008-0226-01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brisson LF, Tenhaken R, Lamb CJ (1994) Function of oxidative cross-linking of cell wall structural proteins in plant disease resistance. Plant Cell 6:1703–1712PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Brown I, Trethowan J, Kerry M, et al (1998) Localization of components of the oxidative cross-linking of glycoproteins and of callose synthesis in papillae formed during the interaction between non-pathogenic strains of Xanthomonas campestris and French bean mesophyll cells. Plant J 15:333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Buonaurio R, Iriti M, Romanazzi G (2009) Review/Rassegna, Plant induced resistance to fungal diseases. Petria 19(3):130–148Google Scholar
  39. Cabuslay GS, Ito O, Alejal AA (2002) Physiological evaluation of responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to water deficit. Plant Sci 63:815–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cai K, Gao D, Chen J et al (2009) Probing the mechanisms of silicon-mediated pathogen resistance. Plant Signal Behav 4:1–3PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cassab GI, Varner JE (1988) Cell wall proteins. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 39:321–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Challa S, Chan FK (2010) Going up in flames: necrotic cell injury and inflammatory diseases. Cell Mol Life Sci 67:3241–3253PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chamarthi SK, Sharma HC, Sahrawat KL et al (2010) Physico-chemical mechanisms of resistance to shoot fly, Atherigona soccata in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. J Appl Entomol 135:446–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Chang HC, Tang YC, Hayer-Hartl M, Hartl FU (2007) SnapShot: molecular chaperones, part I. Cell 128. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.001
  45. Ciais P, Reichstein M, Viovy N, Granier A, Oge J, Allard V, Aubinet M, Buchmann M et al (2005) Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 237:529–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Coll NS, Epple P, Dangl JL (2011) Programmed cell death in the plant immune system. Cell Death Differ 18:1247–1256. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2011.37 (published online 8 Apr 2011)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Colom MR, Vazzana C (2001) Drought stress effects on three cultivars of Eragrostis curvula: Photosynthesis and water relations. Plant Growth Regul 34:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cooper JB, Varner JE (1984) Cross-linking of soluble extensin in isolated cell walls. Plant Physiol 76:414–417PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cornic G (2000) Drought stress inhibits photosynthesis by decreasing stomatal aperture—not by affecting ATP synthesis. Trends Plant Sci 5:187–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Correia MJ, Coelho D, David MM (2001) Response to seasonal drought in three cultivars of Ceratonia siliqua; leaf growth and water relation. Tree Physiol 21:645–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Croser C, Renault S, Franklin J et al (2001) The effect of salinity on the emergence and seedling growth of Picea mariana, Picea glauca, and Pinus banksiana. Environ Pollut 115:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cui W, Fang P, Zhu K et al (2014) Hydrogen-rich water confers plant tolerance to mercury toxicity in alfalfa seedlings. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 105:103–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dang YP, Dalal RC, Buck SR et al (2010) Diagnosis, extent, impacts, and management of subsoil constraints in the northern grains cropping region of Australia. Aust J Soil Res 48:105–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dar ZA, Lone AA, Alie BA, Makdoomi MI, Wani GA, Gazal SHA, Gulzar S (2016) Development of stress resilient maize cultivars for sustainablity. Adv Life Sci 5(2):349–355Google Scholar
  55. Das SK, Patra JK, Thatoi H (2016) Antioxidative response to abiotic and biotic stresses in mangrove plants: a review. Int Rev Hydrobiol 101(1–2):3019Google Scholar
  56. Datta K, Baisakh N, Ganguly M et al (2012) Overexpression of Arabidopsis and rice stress genes inducible transcription factor confers drought and salinity tolerance to rice. Plant Biotech J 10(5):579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Davis HA, Daniels MJ, Dow JW (1997). Induction of extracellular matrix glycoproteins in Brassica petioles by wounding and in response to Xanthomonas campestris. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 10:812–820Google Scholar
  58. De Lucca AJ, Cleveland TE, Wedge DE (2005) Plant-derived antifungal proteins and peptides. Can J Microbiol 51:1001–1014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Deak KI, Malamy J (2005) Osmotic regulation of root system architecture. Plant J 43(1):17–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Demidchik Vadim, Straltsova Darya, Medvedev Sergey S et al (2014) Stress-induced electrolyte leakage: the role of K+-permeable channels and involvement in programmed cell death and metabolic adjustment. J Exp Bot 65(5):1259–1270. doi: 10.1093/jxb/eru004CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Dhaliwal GS, Singh R (eds) (2004) Host plant resistance to insects: concepts and applications. Panima Publishing Corporation, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  62. Ding Y, Fromm M, Avramova Z (2012) Multiple exposures to drought ‘train’ transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis. Nat Commun 3:740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Djibril S, Mohamed OK, Diaga D, Diégane D, Abaye BF, Maurice S, Alain B (2005) Growth and development of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedlings under drought and salinity stresses. Afr J Biotechnol 4:968–972Google Scholar
  64. dos Reis SP, Marques DN, Lima AM, de Souza CRB (2016) Plant molecular adaptations and strategies under drought stress. In: Hossain MA et al (eds) Drought stress tolerance in plants, vol 2. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-32423-4_4
  65. Dou D, Zhou JM (2012) Phytopathogen effectors subverting host immunity: different foes, similar battleground. Cell Host Microbe 12:484–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Eggli U, Nyffeler R (2009) Living under temporarily arid conditions—succulence as an adaptive strategy. Bradleya 27:13–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ehleringer J, Björkman O, Mooney HA (1976) Leaf pubescence: effects on absorptance and photosynthesis in a desert shrub. Science 192:376–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Englishloeb GM (1990) Plant drought stress and outbreaks of spidermites—a field-test. Ecology 71:1401–1411Google Scholar
  69. Epstein L, Lamport DTA (1984) An intramolecular linkage involving isodityrosine in extensin. Phytochemistry 23:1241–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Espelie KE, Kolattukudy PE (1985) Purification and characterization of an abscisic acid-inducible peroxidase associated with suberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Arch Biochem Biophys 240:539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Espelie KE, Franceschi VR, Kolattukudy PE (1986) Immunocytochemical localization and time course of appearance of an anionic peroxidase associated with suberization in wound-healing potato tuber tissue. Plant Physiol 87:487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Everdeen DS, Kiefer S, Willard JJ et al (1988) Enzymic cross-linkage of monomeric extensin precursors in vitro. Plant Physiol 87:616PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Fang Y, You J, Xie K et al (2008) Systematic sequence analysis and identification of tissue-specific or stress-responsive genes of NAC transcription factor family in rice. Mol Genet Genomics 280:547–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Farid M, Shakoor MB, Ehsan A, Ali S, Zubair M, Hanif MS (2013) Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of different plant species to Cd stress. Int J Chem Biochem Sci 3:53–60Google Scholar
  75. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Wahid A, Cheema ZA, Cheema MA, Khaliq A (2008) Physiological role of exogenously applied glycinebetaine in improving drought tolerance of fine grain aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Agron Crop Sci 194:325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra SMA (2009) Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agron Sustain Dev 29:185–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Flexas J, Bota J, Loreto F, Cornic G, Sharkey TD (2004) Diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis under drought and salinity in C3 plants. Plant Biol 6:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fode B, Siemsen T et al (2008a) The Arabidopsis GRAS protein SCL14 interacts with class II TGA transcription factors and is essential for the activation of stress-inducible promoters. Plant Cell 20(11):3122–3135PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Fode B, Siemsen T, Thurow C et al (2008b) The Arabidopsis GRAS protein SCL14 interacts with class II TGA transcription factors and is essential for the activation of stress inducible promoters. PlantCell 20(11):3122–3135Google Scholar
  80. Fradin EF, Thomma BPHJ (2006) Physiology and molecular aspects of Verticillium wilt diseases caused by V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum. Mol. Plant Pathol 7:71–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Fraire-Velazquez S, Rodríguez-Guerra R, Sanchez Calderon L (2011) Abiotic and biotic stress response crosstalk in plants. In: Shanker A (ed) Abiotic stress response in plants—physiological, biochemical and genetic perspectives. InTech, Rijeka, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  82. Franco JA, Fernandez JA, Banon S et al (1997) Relationship between the effects of salinity on seedling leaf area and fruit yield of six muskmelons cultivars. J Hortic Sci 32:642–647Google Scholar
  83. Franco JA, Bañón S, Vicente MJ et al (2011) Root development in horticultural plants grown under abiotic stress conditions—a review. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 86:543–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Fry SC (1986) Cross-linking of matrix polymers in the growing cell walls of angiosperms. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 37:165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fu ZQ, Dong X (2013) Systemic acquired resistance: turning local infection into global defense. Annu Rev Plant Biol 64:839–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Fu ZQ, Guo M, Jeong BR et al (2007) A type III effector ADP-ribosylates RNA-binding proteins and quells plant immunity. Nature 447:284–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Fujimoto SY, Ohta M, Usui A et al (2000) Arabidopsis ethylene-responsive element binding factors act as transcriptional activators or repressors of GCC box-mediated gene expression. Plant Cell 12(3):393–404PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Fukao T, Yeung E, Bailey-Serres J (2011) The submergence tolerance regulator SUB1A mediates crosstalk between submergence and drought tolerance in rice. Plant Cell 23:412–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. García-Muniz, N, Martinez-Izquierdo JA, Puigdomenech P (1998) Induction of mRNA accumulation corresponding to a gene encoding a cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein by fungal elicitors. Plant Mol Biol 38:623–632Google Scholar
  90. Garrett KA, Dendy SP, Frank EE, et al (2006) Climate change effects on plant disease: genomes to ecosystems. Annu Rev Phytopathol 44:489–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gilroy S, Suzuki N, Miller G et al (2014) A tidal wave of signals: calcium and ROS at the forefront of rapid systemic signaling. Trends Plant Sci 19:623–630PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Goel AK, Lundberg D, Torres MA, Matthews R, Akimoto Tomiyama C, Farmer L, Dangl JL, Grant SR (2008) The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopAM1 enhances virulence on water-stressed plants. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 21:361–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gomes D, Agasse A, Thiebaud P et al (2009) Aquaporins are multifunctional water and solute transporters highly divergent in living organisms. Biochim Biophys Acta 1788:1213–1228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gomes MP, Marques TCLLDSM, Nogueira MDOG et al (2011) Ecophysiological and anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of heavy metal in Brachiaria decumbens. Sci Agric (Piracicaba, Braz) 68(5):566–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gosal SS, Wani SH, Kang MS (2009) Biotechnology and drought tolerance. J Crop Improv 23(1):19–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Gosal SS, Wani SH, Kang MS (2010) Biotechnology and drought tolerance. In: Kang MS (ed) Water and agricultural sustainability strategies. CRC Press, Bocca Raton, pp 229–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Gostin IN (2009) Air pollution effects on the leaf structure of some Fabaceae species. Notulae Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 37(2):57–63Google Scholar
  98. Greco M, Chiappetta A, Bruno L et al (2012) Effects of combined drought and heavy metal stresses on xylem structure and hydraulic conductivity in red maple (Acer rubrum L.). J Exp Bot 63(16):5957–5966. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Grimault V, Gelie B, Lemattre M et al (1994) Comparative histology of resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars infected by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 44:105–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Grisebach, H (1981). Lignins. In: Conn EE (ed) The Biochemistry of Plants, vol 7. Academic Press, New York, pp 457–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gross GG (1980) The biochemistry of lignification. Adv Bot Res 8:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gudesblat GE, Torres PS, Vojnov AA (2009) Stomata and pathogens: warfare at the gates. Plant Signaling & Behavior 4(12):1114–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Guest D, Brown J (1997) Plant defences against pathogens. In: Brown JF, Ogle HJ (eds) Plant pathogens and plant diseases. Rockvale Publications for the Division of Botany, Rockvale Publications for the Division of Botany, School of Rural Science and Natural Resources, University of New England, Armidale New South Wales, New England, UKGoogle Scholar
  104. Gunawardena AHLA, Pearce DM, Jackson MB et al (2001) Characterisation of programmed cell death during aerenchyma formation induced by ethylene or hypoxia in roots of maize (Zea mays L.). Planta 212:205–214Google Scholar
  105. Gupta S, Chakrabarti SK (2013) Effect of heavy metals on different anatomical structures of Bruguiera sexangula. Int J Bioresour Stress Manage 4(4):605–609Google Scholar
  106. Gupta B, Huang B (2014) Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants: physiological, biochemical, and molecular characterization. Int J Genomics. doi: 10.1155/2014/701596CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Guttman DS, Vinatzer BA, Sarkar SF et al (2002) A functional screen for the type III (Hrp) secretome of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Science 295:1722–1726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hall AE (1992) Breeding for heat tolerance. Pland Breed Rev 10:129–168Google Scholar
  109. Hammerschmidt R, Kuc J (1995) Induced resistance to disease in plants. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  110. Handley R, Ekbom B, Agren J (2005) Variation in trichome density and resistance against a specialist insect herbivore in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ecol Entomol 30:284–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Haneef Khan M, Meghvansi MK, Panwar V, Gogoi HK, Singh L (2010) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-induced signalling in plant defence against phytopathogens. J Phycol 2(7):53–69Google Scholar
  112. Hanley ME, Lamont BB, Fairbanks MM et al (2007) Plant structural traits and their role in antiherbivore defense. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 8:157–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Harborne JB (1986) The role of phytoalexins in natural plant resistance. In: Natural Resistance of Plants to Pests (ed) ACS Symposium Series, vol 296, 16 Jan 1986, pp 22–35. doi: 10.1021/bk-1986-0296.ch003
  114. Hare JD (2011) Ecological role of volatiles produced by plants in response to damage by herbivorous insects. Annu Rev Entomol 56:161–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, da Silva JAT, Fujita M (2012) Plant responses and tolerance to abiotic oxidative stress: antioxidant defenses is a key factor. In: Bandi V, Shanker AK, Shanker C, Mandapaka M (eds) Crop stress and its management: perspectives and strategies. Springer, Berlin, pp 261–316Google Scholar
  116. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Fujita M (2013) Extreme temperatures, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in plants. In: Vahdati K, Leslie C (eds) Abiotic stress—plant responses and applications in agriculture. InTech, Rijeka, pp 169–205Google Scholar
  117. Hattori Y, Nagai K, Furukawa S et al (2009) The ethylene response factors SNORKEL1 and SNORKEL2 allow rice to adapt to deep water. Nature 460(7258):1026–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. He J, Chen F, Lv Chen S et al (2011) Chrysanthemum leaf epidermal surface morphology and antioxidant and defense enzyme activity in response to aphid infestation. J Plant Physiol 168:687–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hegedus N, Marx F (2013) Antifungial proteins: more than antimicrobials? Fungal Biol Rev 26:132–145PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hodson MJ (2012) Metal toxicity and tolerance in plants. Biochemical Society, pp 28–32Google Scholar
  121. Hoque MA, Banu MNA, Nakamura Y et al (2008) Proline and glycinebetaine enhance antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems and reduce NaCl-induced damage in cultured tobacco cells. J Plant Physiol 165:813–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Hossain MA, Piyatida P, da Silva JAT, Fujita M (2012) Molecular mechanism of heavy metal toxicity and tolerance in plants: central role of glutathione in detoxification of reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal and in heavy metal chelation. J Bot Article ID 872875:37Google Scholar
  123. Hossain MA, Wani SH, Bhattachajee S, Burritt DJ, Tran LSP (eds) (2016) Drought stress tolerance in plants, Vol 1: Physiology and biochemistry. Springer, Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-319-28897-0Google Scholar
  124. Howarth CJ (2005) Genetic improvements of tolerance to high temperature. In: Ashraf M, Harris PJC (eds) Abiotic stresses: plant resistance through breeding and molecular approaches. Howarth Press Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  125. Howe GA, Jander G (2008) Plant immunity to insect herbivores. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:41–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hsieh TH, Li CW, Su RC et al (2010) A tomato bZIP transcription factor, SlAREB, is involved in water deficit and salt stress response. Planta 231:1459–1473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Hu H, Dai M, Yao J et al (2006) Overexpressing a NAM, ATAF, CUC (NAC) transcription factor enhances drought resistance and salt tolerance in rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12987–12992PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Hu R, Qi G, Kong Y et al (2010) Comprehensive analysis of NAC domain transcription factor gene family in Populus trichocarpa. BMC Plant Biol 10:145PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hunt M, Ryals J (1996) Systemic acquired resistance signal transduction. Crit Rev Plant Sci 15:583–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hussain K, Majeed A, Nawaz K et al (2009) Effect of different levels of salinity on growth and ion contents of black seeds (Nigella sativa L.). Curr Res J Biol Sci 1:135–138Google Scholar
  131. Ismail Y, Hijri M (2012) Arbuscular mycorrhisation with Glomus irregulare induces expression of potato PR homologues genes in response to infection by Fusarium sambucinum. Funct Plant Biol 39:236–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Iuchi S, Koyama H, Iuchi A et al (2007) Zinc finger protein STOP1 is critical for proton tolerance in Arabidopsis and coregulates a key gene in aluminum tolerance. PNAS 104:9900–9905PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Jan AT, Azam M, Ali A, Haq Q (2011) Novel approaches of beneficial Pseudomonas in mitigation of plant diseases—an appraisal. J Plant Interact 6:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Jaspers P, Kangasjarvi J (2010) Reactive oxygen species in abiotic stress signaling. Physiol Plant 138(4):405–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Jeandet P (2015) Phytoalexins: current progress and future prospects. Molecules 20:2770–2774. doi: 10.3390/molecules20022770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Jeffery LD, Jonathan DGJ (2001) Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection. Nature 411(6839):826–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Jelenska J, Yao N, Vinatzer BA et al (2007) A J domain virulence effector of Pseudomonas syringae remodels host chloroplasts and suppresses defenses. Curr Biol 17:499–508PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Jeong JS, Kim YS, Baek KH et al (2010) Root-specific expression of OsNAC10 improves drought tolerance and grain yield in rice under field drought conditions. Plant Physiol 153(185):197Google Scholar
  139. Jones JD, Dangl JL (2006) The plant immune system. Nature 444:323–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Joshi R, Wani SH, Singh B, Bohra A, Dar ZA, Lone AA, Pareek A, Singla-Pareek SL (2016) Transcription factors and plants response to drought stress: current understanding and future directions. Front Plant Sci 7:1029PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Justin SHFW, Armstrong W (1991) Evidence for the involvement of ethene in aerenchyma formation in adventitious roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.). New Phytol 118:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kang Z, Buchenauer H (2003) Immunocytochemical localizations of cell wall bound thionins and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins in Fusarium culmorum-infected wheat spikes. J Phytopathol 151:120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Kang JY, Choi HI, Im M, Kim SY (2002) Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper proteins that mediate stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling. Plant Cell 14:343–357PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kang HG, Kim J, Kim B et al (2011) Overexpression of FTL1/DDF1, an AP2 transcription factor, enhances tolerance to cold, drought, and heat stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Sci 180(4):634–641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Karim MA, Fracheboud Y, Stamp P (1997) Heat tolerance of maize with reference of some physiological characteristics. Ann Bangladesh Agric 7:27–33Google Scholar
  146. Kasim WA (2006) Changes induced by copper and cadmium stress in the anatomy and grain yield of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Int J Agric Biol 8(1):123–128Google Scholar
  147. Kavar T, Maras M, Kidric M, Sustar-Vozlic J, Meglic V (2007) Identification of genes involved in the response of leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris to drought stress. Mol Breed 21:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kawano T, Bouteau F (2013) Salicylic acid-induced local and long-distance signaling models in plants. In: Baluska F (ed) Long-distance systemic signaling and communication in plants. Springer, Berlin, pp 23–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Kawasaki S, Borchert C, Deyholosetal M (2001) Gene expression profiles during the initial phase of salt stress in rice. Plant Cell 13(4):889–905PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Kaya MD, Okçub G, Ataka M, Çıkılıc Y, Kolsarıcıa O (2006) Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Eur J Agron 24:291–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Khan MR, Khan MW (1996). Interaction of Meloidogyne incognita and coal-smoke pollutants on tomato. Nematropica 26:47–56Google Scholar
  152. Khan H, Wani SH (2014) Molecular approaches to enhance abiotic stresses tolerance. In: Wani SH, Malik CP, Hora A, Kaur R (eds) Innovations in plant science and biotechnology, pp 111–152. Agrobios (India). ISBN: 978-81-7754-553-1Google Scholar
  153. Khan K, Agarwal P, Shanware A, Sane VA (2015) Heterologous expression of two Jatropha aquaporins imparts drought and salt tolerance and improves seed viability in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128866CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Kiani SP, Talia P, Maury P, Grieu P, Heinz R, Perrault A, Nishinakamasu V, Hopp E, Gentzbittel L, Paniego N, Sarrafi A (2007) Genetic analysis of plant water status and osmotic adjustment in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower under two water treatments. Plant Sci 172:773–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Kim YS, Morgan MJ, Choksi S, Liu ZG (2007) TNF-induced activation of the Nox1 NADPH oxidase and its role in the induction of necrotic cell death. Mol Cell 26:675–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Kinoshita T, Seki M (2014) Epigenetic memory for stress response and adaptation in plants. Plant Cell Physiol 55(11):1859–1863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Kissoudis C, van de Wiel C, Visser RGF, van der Linden G (2014) Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk. Front Plant Sci. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00207CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Kochian LV, Miguel AP, Liu J et al (2015) Plant adaptation to acid soils: the molecular basis for crop aluminum resistance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 66:23.1–23.28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Koike E, Noguchi S, Yamashita H, et al (2001) Ultrasonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules: prediction of malignancy. Arch Surg 136(3):334–337Google Scholar
  160. Korner C (2016) Plant adaptation to cold climates. F1000 Research. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.9107.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Kotak S, Larkindale J, Lee U et al (2007) Complexity of the heat stress response in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10(3):310–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Krasensky J, Jonak C (2012) Drought, salt, and temperature stress-induced metabolic rearrangements and regulatory networks. J Exp Bot. doi: 10.1093/jxb/err460CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Kumar V, Khare T, Sharma M, Wani SH (2017) ROS induced signaling and gene-expression in crops under salinity stress. In: Khan IR (ed) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant systems: role and regulation under abiotic stress. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland (In Press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Lamb C, Dixon RA (1997) The oxidative burst in plant disease resistance. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48:251–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Larcher W (2003) Physiological plant ecology, 4th edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Lay FT, Anderson MA (2005) Defensins—components of the innate immune system in plants. Curr Protein Pept Sci 6:85–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Leach JE, Cantrell MA, Sequeira L (1982). A hydroxyproline rich bacterial agglutinin from potato: Extraction, purification, and characterization. Plant Physiol 70:1353–1358PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Le DT, Nishiyama R, Watanabe Y et al (2011) Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the plant-specific NAC transcription factor family in soybean during development and dehydration stress. DNA Res 18:263–276PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Lehtonen MJ, Somervuo P, Valkonen JPT (2008) Infection with Rhizoctonia solani induces defense genes and systemic resistance in potato sprouts grown without light. Phytopathology 98:1190–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Liang S, Stroeve J, Box JE (2005) Mapping daily snow/ice shortwave broadband albedo from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): The improved direct retrieva algorithm and validation with Greenland in situ measurement. J of Geophys Res 110. ISSN: 0148-0227. doi:  10.1029/2004JD005493
  171. Licausi F, Giorgi FM, Zenoni S et al (2010) Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Vitis vinifera. BMC Genom 11(1):719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Lima RB, Santosb TBD, Vieirab LGE et al (2013) Heat stress causes alterations in the cell-wall polymers and anatomy of coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L.). Carbohyd Polym 93:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Liu J, Ishitani M, Halfter U et al (2000) The Arabidopsis thaliana SOS2 gene encodes a protein kinase that is required for salt tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(7):3730–3734PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Liu J, Maldonado-Mendoza I, Lopez-Meyer M, Cheung F, Town CD, Harrison MJ (2007) Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is accompanied by local and systemic alterations in gene expression and an increase in disease resistance in the shoots. Plant J 50:529–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Liu J, Magalhaes JV, Shaff J, Kochian LV (2009) Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance. Plant J 57:389–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Lone AA, Khan MH, Dar ZA, Wani SH (2016) Breeding strategies for improving growth and yield under waterlogging conditions in maize: a review. Maydica 61(1):1–11Google Scholar
  177. Ma S, Bohnert HJ (2007) Integration of Arabidopsis thaliana stress-related transcript profiles, promoter structures, and cell-specific expression. Genome Biol. doi: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-4-r49CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. Marques TCLLSM, Moreira FMS, Siqueira JO (2000) Growth and uptake of metals in tree seedlings in soil contaminated with heavy metals. Pesquisa Agropecuária Bras 35:121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Masle J, Gilmore SR, Farquhar GD (2005) The ERECTA gene regulates plant transpiration efficiency in Arabidopsis. Nature 436:866–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Mazau D, Rumeau D, Esquerre-Tugaye MT (1987). Molecular approaches to understanding cell surface interactions between plants and fungal pathogens. Plant Physiol Biochem 25:337–343Google Scholar
  181. McCue KF, Hanson AD (1990) Drought and salt tolerance: towards understanding and application. Trends Biotechnol 8:358–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Micco VD, Aronne G (2002) Plant responses to drought stress. In: Aroca R (ed). Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  183. Millar DJ, Slabas AR, Sidebottom C, et al (1992) A major stress inducible Mr-42Kda wall glycoprotien of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Planta 187:176–184Google Scholar
  184. Mishra SK, Tripp J, Winkelhaus S et al (2002) In the complex family of heat stress transcription factors, HsfA1 has a unique role as master regulator of thermotolerance in tomato. Genes Dev 16:1555–1567PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7:405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Miyazawa S, Yoshimura S, Shinzaki Y et al (2008) Deactivation of aquaporins decreases internal conductance to CO2 diffusion in tobacco leaves grown under long-term drought. Funct Plant Biol 35(7):553–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Mogensen TH (2009) Pathogen recognition and inflammatory signaling in innate immune defenses. Clin Microbiol Rev 22:240–273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Moreno AA, Orellana A (2011) The physiological role of the unfolded protein response in plants. Biol Res 44:75–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Moura JCMS, Bonine CAV, de Oliveira Fernandes Viana J et al (2010) Abiotic and biotic stresses and changes in the lignin content and composition in plants. J Integr Plant Biol 52(4):360–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Ann Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Mur LA, Kenton P, Lloyd AJ et al (2008) The hypersensitive response; the centenary is upon us but how much do we know? J Exp Bot 59:501–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Murakami T, Matsuba S, Funatsuki H et al (2004) Overexpression of a small heat shock protein, sHSP17.7, confers both heat tolerance and UV-B resistance to rice plants. Mol Breed 13:165–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Nakano T, Suzuki K, Fujimura T, Shinshi H (2006) Genomewide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice. Plant Physiol 140(2):411–432PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Nakashima K, Ito Y, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2009) Transcriptional regulatory networks in response to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis and grasses. Plant Physiol 149:88–95PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Neuenschwander U, Lawton K, Ryals J (1996) Systemic acquired resistance. In: Stacey G, Keen NT (eds) Plant-microbe interactions, vol 1. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 81–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Niderman T, Genetet I, Bruyere T, et al (1995) Pathogenesis-related PR-1 proteins are antifungal. Isolation and characterization of three 14-kilodalton proteins of tomato and of a basic PR-1 of tobacco with inhibitory activity against Phytophthora infestans. Plant physiol 108(1):17–27PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Nuruzzaman M, Sharoni AM, Kikuchi S (2013) Roles of NAC transcription factors in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. Front Microbiol. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00248CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Ogunkunle CO, Abdulrahaman AA, Fatoba PO (2013) Influence of cement dust pollution on leaf epidermal features of Pennisetum purpureum and Sida acuta. Environ Exp Biol 11:73–79Google Scholar
  200. Okushima Y, Koizumi N, Kusano T, Sano H (2000) Secreted proteins of tobacco cultured BY2 cells: identification of a new member of pathogenesis-related proteins. Plant Mol Biol 42:479–488Google Scholar
  201. Onate-Sanchez L, Singh KB (2002) Identification of Arabidopsis ethylene-responsive element binding factors with distinct induction kinetics after pathogen infection. Plant Physiol 128(4):1313–1322PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Ooka H, Satoh K, Doi K et al (2003) Comprehensive analysis of NAC family genes in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana. DNA Res 10:239–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Osbourn AE (1994) An oat species lacking avenacin is susceptible to infection by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 45(6):457–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Osbourn AE (1996) Saponins and plant defence—a soap story. Trends Plant Sci 1(1):4–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Painter RH (1951) Insect resistance in crop plants. The Macmillan Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  206. Palmer DA, Bender CL (1995) Ultrastructure of tomato leaf tissue treated with the pseudomonad phytotoxin coronatine and comparison with methyl jasmonate. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 8:683–692 (St. Paul)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Panda N, Khush GS (1995) Host plant resistance to insects. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  208. Park JM, Park CJ, Lee SB et al (2001) Overexpression of the tobacco Tsi1 gene encoding an EREBP/AP2–type transcription factor enhances resistance against pathogen attack and osmotic stress in tobacco. Plant Cell 13(5):1035–1046PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Pasquali G, Biricolti S, Locatelli F et al (2008) Osmyb4 expression improves adaptive responses to drought and cold stress in transgenic apples. Plant Cell Rep 27:1677–1686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Pasternak T, Rudas V, Potters G et al (2005) Morphogenic effects of abiotic stress: reorientation of growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 53:299–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Pastor V, Luna E, Mauch-Mani B et al (2013) Primed plants do not forget. Environ Exp Bot 94:46–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Pathak MR, Wani SH (2015) Salinity stress tolerance in relation to polyamine metabolism in plants. In: Managing salt tolerance in plants: molecular and genomic perspectives. CRC Press, pp 241–250Google Scholar
  213. Pathak MR, Teixeira da Silva JA, Wani SH (2014) Polyamines in response to abiotic stress tolerance through transgenic approaches. GM Crops 5(2):1–10Google Scholar
  214. Patra M, Bhowmik N, Bandopadhyay B et al (2004) Comparison of mercury, lead and arsenic with respect to genotoxic effects on plant systems and the development of genetic tolerance. Environ Exp Bot 3:199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Pedras MSC, Yaya EE, Glawischnig E (2011) The phytoalexins from cultivated and wild crucifers: chemistry and biology. Nat Prod Rep 28:1381–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Pelegrini PB, Franco OL (2005) Plant gamma-thionins: novel insights on the mechanism of action of a multi-functional class of defense proteins. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:2239–2253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Perez-Alfocea F, Ghanem ME, Gomez-Cadenas A, Dodd I (2011) Omics of root-to-shoot signaling under salt stress and water deficit. OMICS 15(12):893–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Perez-Clemente RM, Vives V, Zandalinas SI et al (2013) Biotechnological approaches to study plant responses to stress. Biomed Res Int. doi: 10.1155/2013/654120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Pestana-Calsa MC, Calsa T (2011) In silico identification of plant-derived antimicrobial peptides. DOI:2011Google Scholar
  220. Plaxton WC (2004) Plant response to stress: biochemical adaptations to phosphate deficiency encyclopedia of plant and crop science. doi: 10.1081/E-EPCS120010648
  221. Plaxton WC, Carswell MC (1999) Metabolic aspects of the phosphate starvation response in plants. In: Plant responses to environmental stresses: from phytohormones to genome reorganization. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp 349–372Google Scholar
  222. Pourkhabbaz A, Rastin N, Olbrich A et al (2010) Influence of environmental pollution on leaf properties of urban plane trees, Platanus orientalis L. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85:251–255. doi: 10.1007/s00128-010-0047-4CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. Raffaele S, Vailleau F, Leger A et al (2008) A MYB transcription factor regulates very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis for activation of the hypersensitive cell death response in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 20(3):752–767PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Raggi V (2000) Hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein accumulation in tobacco leaves protected against Erysiphe cichoracearum by potato virus Y infection. Plant Pathology 49(2):179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Rejeb IB, Victoria P, Brigitte MM (2014) Plant responses to simultaneous biotic and abiotic stress: molecular mechanisms. Plants 3(4):458–475. doi: 10.3390/plants3040458CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  226. Ribeiro JM, Perira CS, Soares NC et al (2006) The contribution of extensin network formation to rapid, hydrogen peroxide-mediated increase in grapevine callus wall resistance to fungal lytic enzymes. J Exp Bot 57:2025–2035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Rodrigues LMR, Queiroz-Voltan RB, Guerreiro-Filho O (2015) Anatomical changes on coffee leaves infected by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Garcae. Summa Phytopathol 41(4):256–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Rodríguez P, Torrecillas A, Morales MA et al (2005) Effects of NaCl salinity and water stress on growth and leaf water relations of Asteriscus maritimus plants. Environ Exp Bot 53:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Romero-Aranda R, Moya JL, Tadeo FR et al (1998) Physiological and anatomical disturbances induced by chloride salts in sensitive and tolerant citrus: beneficial and detrimental effects of cations. Plant Cell Environ 21:1243–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Roy D, Basu N, Bhunia A, Banerjee S (1993) Counteraction of exogenous L-proline with NaCl in salt-sensitive cultivar of rice. Biol Plant 35:69–72. doi: 10.1007/BF02921122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Rucker KS, Kvien CK, Holbrook CC et al (1995) Identification of peanut genotypes with improved drought avoidance traits. Peanut Sci 24:14–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Sah SK, Kaur G, Wani SH (2016) Metabolic engineering of compatible solute trehalose for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In: Osmolytes and plants acclimation to changing environment: emerging omics technologies. Springer, pp 83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Sairam RK, Kumutha D, Ezhilmathi K, Deshmukh PS, Srivastava GC (2008) Physiology and biochemistry of waterlogging tolerance in plants. Biol Plant 52:401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Salleo S, Nardini A (2000) Sclerophylly: evolutionary advantage or mere epiphenomenon? Plant Biosyst 134:247–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Sanghera GS, Wani SH, Hussain W, Singh NB (2011) Engineering cold stress tolerance in crop plants. Curr Genomics 12(1):30PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Sanitá di Troppi L, Gabbrielli R (1999) Response to cadmium in higher plants. Environ Exp Bot 41:105–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Sawaki Y, Iuchi S, Kobayashi Y et al (2009) STOP1 regulates multiple genes that protect Arabidopsis from proton and aluminum toxicities. Plant Physiol 150:281–294PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Sayed OH (1996) Adaptational responses of Zygophyllum qatarense Hadidi to stress conditions in a desert environment. J Arid Environ 32:445–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Schmid PS, Feucht W (1980) Tissue-specific oxidative browning of polyphenols by peroxidase in cherry shoots. Gartenbauwissenschaft 45:68Google Scholar
  240. Schmidt R, Mieulet D, Hubberten HM et al (2013) SALT RESPONSIVE ERF1 regulates reactive oxygen species dependent signaling during the initial response to salt stress in rice. Plant Cell 25(6):2115–2131PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Sels J, Mathys J, De Coninck BMA, et al (2008). Plant pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins: a focus on PR peptides. Plant Physiol Biochem 46:941–950Google Scholar
  242. Seo PJ, Park CM (2010) MYB96-mediated abscisic acid signals induce pathogen resistance response by promoting salicylic acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. New Phytol 186(2):471–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Serrano Mario, Coluccia Fania, Torres Martha et al (2014) The cuticle and plant defense to pathogens. Front Plant Sci 5:274. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00274CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. Shahid M, Dumat C, Pourrut B et al (2014) Assessing the effect of metal speciation on lead toxicity to Vicia faba pigment contents. J Geochem Explor 144:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Shaik R, Ramakrishna W (2013) Genes and co-expression modules common to drought and bacterial stress responses in Arabidopsis and rice. PLoS ONE 8:e77261. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077261CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. Shaik R, Ramakrishna W (2014) Machine learning approaches distinguish multiple stress conditions using stress-responsive genes and identify candidate genes for broad resistance in rice. Plant Physiol 164:481–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Shailasree S, Kini KR, Deepak S, et al (2004) Accumulation of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins in pearl millet seedlings in response to Sclerospora graminicola infection. Plant Sci 167:1227–1234Google Scholar
  248. Shannon MC, Grieve CM, Francois LE (1994) Whole-plant response to salinity. In: Wilkinson RE (ed) Plant-environment interactions. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp 199–244Google Scholar
  249. Shao HB, Liang ZS, Shao MA et al (2005) Investigation on dynamic changes of photosynthetic characteristics of 10 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes during two vegetative growth stages at water deficits. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 43:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Shao HB, Chu LY, Jaleel CA et al (2008a) Water-deficit stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants. C R Biol 331:215–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Shao HB, Chu LY, Shao MA et al (2008b) Higher plant antioxidants and redox signaling under environmental stresses. C R Biol 331:433–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Sharma I (2012) Arsenic induced oxidative stress in plants. Biologia 3:447–453Google Scholar
  253. Sharma HC, Sujana G, Rao DM (2009) Morphological and chemical components of resistance to pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera in wild relatives of pigeonpea. Arthropod Plant Interact 3:151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Sharma P, Jha AB, Dubey RS, Pessarakli M (2012) Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. J Bot Article ID 217037:26. doi: 10.1155/2012/217037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Shields LM (1950) Leaf xeromorphy as related to physiological and structural influences. Bot Rev 16:399–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Shriram V, Kumar V, Devarumath RM, Khare TS, Wani SH (2016) MicroRNAs as potential targets for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Front Plant Sci 7:817. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00817CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. Silva LC, Oliva MA, Azevedo AA et al (2006) Responses of restinga plant species to pollution from an iron pelletization factory. Water Air Soil Pollut 175(1–4):241–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Singh S, Prasad SM (2014) Growth photosynthesis and oxidative responses of Solanum melongena L. seedlings to cadmium stress: mechanism of toxicity amelioration by kinetin. Sci Hortic 176:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Singh M, Kumar J, Singh S et al (2015) Adaptation strategies of plants against heavy metal toxicity: a short review. Biochem Pharmacol (Los Angel) 4:161. doi: 10.4172/2167-0501.1000161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Smallhood M, Martin H, Knox JP (1995) An epitope of rice threonine and HRGP is common to cell wall and hydrophobic plasma membrane glycoproteins. Planta 196:510–522Google Scholar
  261. Sommer-Knudsen J, Bacic A, Clarke AE (1998) Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, Phytochemistry 47:483–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Specht JE, Chase K, Macrander M, Graef GL, Chung J, Markwell JP, Germann M, Orf V, Lark KG (2001) Soybean response to water. A QTL analysis of drought tolerance. Crop Sci 41:493–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Sridhar BBM, Diehl SV, Han FX et al (2005) Anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of Zn and Cd in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Environ Exp Bot 54:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Stakman EC (1915) Relation between Puccinia graminis and plants highly resistant to its attack. J Agric Res 4:193–200Google Scholar
  265. Steinhorst L, Kudla J (2013) Calcium and reactive oxygen species rule the waves of signaling. Plant Physiol 163:471–485PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Stotz HU, Thomson JG, Wang Y (2009) Plant defensins defense, development and application. Plant Signal Behav 11:1010–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Subbarao GV, Johansen C, Slinkard AE, Rao RCN, Saxena NP, Chauhan YS (1995) Strategies and scope for improving drought resistance in grain legumes. Crit Rev Plant Sci 14:469–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Surekha C, Aruna L, Hossain MA, Wani SH, Neelapu NRR (2015) Present status and future prospects of transgenic approaches for salt tolerance in plants/crop plants. In: Managing salt tolerance in plants: molecular and genomic perspectives. CRC Press, USA, p 329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Talbert CM, Holch AE (1957) A study of the lobing of sun and shade leaves. Ecology 38:655–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Talboys PW (1972) Resistance to vascular wilt fungi. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 181:319–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Telem RS, Wani SH, Singh NB, Sadhukhan R, Mandal N (2016) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. In: Advances in plant breeding strategies: agronomic, abiotic and biotic stress traits. Springer International Publishing, pp 327–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Templeton MD, Dixon RA, Lamb CJ, Lawton MA (1990) Hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein transcripts exhibit different spatial patterns of accumulation in compatible and incompatible interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Plant Physiol 94:1265–1269Google Scholar
  273. Torres MA (2010) ROS in biotic interactions. Physiol Plant 138:414–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Torres MA, Dangl JL (2005) Functions of the respiratory burst oxidase in biotic interactions, abiotic stress and development. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:397–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Tovkach A, Ryan PR, Richardson AE et al (2013) Transposon-mediated alteration of TaMATE1B expression in wheat confers constitutive citrate efflux from root apices. Plant Physiol 161:880–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Tran LS, Nakashima K, Sakuma Y et al (2004) Isolation and functional analysis of Arabidopsis stress-inducible NAC transcription factors that bind to a drought-responsive cis-element in the early responsive to dehydration stress 1 promoter. Plant Cell 16:2481–2498PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Underwood W (2012) The plant cell wall: a dynamic barrier against pathogen invasion. Front Plant Sci 3:85. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00085CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  278. Van Baarlen P, Van Belkum A, Summerbell RC et al (2007) Molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity: how do pathogenic microorganisms develop cross-kingdom host jumps? FEMS Microbiol Rev 31(3):239–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM, Pieterse CMJ (1998) Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria. Annu Rev Phytopathol 36:453–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. VanEtten HD, Mansfield JW, Bailey JA et al (1994) Two classes of plant antibiotics: phytoalexins versus “phytoanticipins”. Plant Cell 6(9):1191–1192. doi: 10.1105/tpc.6.9.1191CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  281. Vannini C, Locatelli F, Bracale M et al (2004) Overexpression of the rice Osmyb4 gene increases chilling and freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Plant J 37:115–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Vannini C, Campa M, Iriti M et al (2007) Evaluation of transgenic tomato plants ectopically expressing the rice Osmyb4 gene. Plant Sci 173:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Verhage A, Wees Van, Pieterse SCM et al (2010) Plant immunity: it’s the hormones talking, but what do they say? Plant Physiol 154:536–540PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Verma RB, Mahmooduzzafar TO, Siddiqi M et al (2006) Foliar response of Ipomea pestigridis L. to coal-smoke pollution. Turk J Bot 30(5):413–417Google Scholar
  285. Visser EJW, Colmer TD, Blom C et al (2000) Changes in growth, porosity, and radial oxygen loss from adventitious roots of selected mono and dicotyledonous wetland species with contrasting types of aerenchyma. Plant, Cell & Envi 23(11):1237–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M et al (2007) Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 61:199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Walker RR, Sedgley M, Blesing MA et al (1984) Anatomy, ultrastructure and assimilate concentrations of roots of citrus genotypes differing in ability for salt exclusion. J Exp Bot 35:1481–1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Walter MH (1992) Regulation of lignification in defense. In Boller T, Meins F, (eds) Genes involved in plant defense. Springer Verlag, New York, pp 327–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Wani SH, Gosal SS (2010) Genetic engineering for osmotic stress tolerance in plants—role of proline. IUP J Genet Evol 3(4):14–25Google Scholar
  290. Wani SH, Gosal SS (2011) Introduction of OsglyII gene into Oryza sativa for increasing salinity tolerance. Biol Plant 55(3):536–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Wani SH, Hossain MA (eds) (2015) Managing salinity tolerance in plants: molecular and genomic perspectives. CRC Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  292. Wani SH, Kumar V (2015) Plant stress tolerance: engineering ABA: a potent phytohormone. Transcriptomics 3:113. doi: 10.4172/2329-8936.1000113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Wani SH, Sah SK (2014) Biotechnology and abiotic stress tolerance in rice. J Rice Res 2:e105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Wani SH, Sandhu JS, Gosal SS (2008) Genetic engineering of crop plants for abiotic stress tolerance. In: Malik CP, Kaur B, Wadhwani C (eds) Advanced topics in plant biotechnology and plant biology. MD Publications, New Delhi, pp 149–183Google Scholar
  295. Wani SH, Lone AA, Da Silva T, Gosal SS (2010) Effects of NaCl stress on callus induction and plant regeneration from mature seeds of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Asian Australasian J Plant Sci Biotechnol 4(1):57–61Google Scholar
  296. Wani SH, Singh NB, Jeberson SM, Sanghera GS, Haribhushan A, Chaudhury BU, Bhat MA (2012) Molecular strategies for identification and deployment of gene(s) for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. LS Int J Life Sci 1(2):128–142Google Scholar
  297. Wani SH, Singh NB, Haribhushan A, Mir JI (2013a) Compatible solute engineering in plants for abiotic stress tolerance—role of glycine betaine. Curr Genomics 14(3):157–165PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Wani SH, Singh NB, Devi TR, Haribhushan A, Jeberson SM (2013b) Engineering abiotic stress tolerance in plants: extricating regulatory gene complex. In Malik CP, Sanghera GS, Wani SH (eds) Conventional and non-conventional approaches for crop improvement. MD Publications, New Delhi, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  299. Wani SH, Sah SK, Hossain MA, Kumar V, Balachandran SM (2016a) Transgenic approaches for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. In: Advances in plant breeding strategies: agronomic, abiotic and biotic stress traits. Springer International Publishing, pp 345–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Wani SH, Sah SK, Sanghera G, Hussain W, Singh NB (2016b) Genetic engineering for cold stress tolerance in crop plants. In: Atta-ur-Rahman (ed) Advances in genome science, vol 4. Bentham Science, UK, pp 173–201Google Scholar
  301. War AR, Paulraj MG, Ahmad T et al (2012) Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores. Plant Signal Behav 7(10):1306–1320PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Ward HM (1902) On the relations between host and parasite in the bromes and their brown rust, puccinia dispersa (Erikss.). Ann Bot 16:233–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Watkin ELJ, Thomson CJ, Greenway H (1998) Root development in two wheat cultivars and one triticale cultivar grown in stagnant agar and aerated nutrient solution. Ann Bot 81:349–354Google Scholar
  304. Webber HA, Madramootoo CA, Bourgault M, Horst MG, Stulina G, Smith DL (2006) Water use efficiency of common bean and green gram grown using alternate furrow and deficit irrigation. Agric Water Manag 86:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Wijaya R, Neumann GM, Condron R et al (2000) Defense proteins from seed of Cassia fistula includes a lipid transfer protein homologue and a protease inhibitory plant defensin. Plant Sci 159:243–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Wild A, Schmitt V (1995) Diagnosis of damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies) through biochemical criteria. Physiol Plant 93:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Wu L, Chen X, Ren H et al (2007) ERF protein JERF1 that transcriptionally modulates the expression of abscisic acid biosynthesis-related gene enhances the tolerance under salinity and cold in tobacco. Planta 226(4):815–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Wu QS, Xia RX, Zou YN (2008) Improved soil structure and citrus growth after inoculation with three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under drought stress. Eur J Soil Biol 44:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Wullschleger SD, Yin TM, DiFazio SP, Tschaplinski TJ, Gunter LE, Davis MF, Tuskan GA (2005) Phenotypic variation in growth and biomass distribution for two advanced-generation pedigrees of hybrid poplar. Can J For Res 35:1779–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Xu K, Mackill DJ (1996) A major locus for submergence tolerance mapped on rice chromosome 9. Mol Breed 2:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Xu D, Duan B, Wang B et al (1996) Expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein gene, HVA1, from barley confers tolerance to water deficit and salt stress in transgenic rice. Plant Physiol 110:249–257PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Xu K, Xu X, Fukao T et al (2006) Sub1A is an ethylene responsive-factor like gene that confers submergence tolerance to rice. Nature 442:705–708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Xu J, Yin H, Li X (2009) Protective effects of proline against cadmium toxicity in micropropagated hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. Plant Cell Rep 28:325–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Xu C, Wang M, Zhou L et al (2013) Heterologous expression of the wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 compromises the abiotic stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079618CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  315. Xu Y, Hu W, Liu J et al (2014) A banana aquaporin gene, MaPIP1;1, is involved in tolerance to drought and salt stresses. BMC Plant Biol. doi: 10.1186/1471-2229-14-59CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  316. Yadav G, Srivastava PK, Singh VP et al (2014) Light intensity alters the extent of arsenic toxicity in Helianthus annuus L. seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res 158:410–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Yamaji N, Huang CF, Nagao S et al (2009) A zinc finger transcription factor ART1 regulates multiple genes implicated in aluminum tolerance in rice. Plant Cell 21:3339–3349PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Yang A, Dai X, Zhang WH (2012) A R2R3-type MYB gene, OsMYB2, is involved in salt, cold, and dehydration tolerance in rice. J Exp Bot 63:2541–2556PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Yang X, Wan X, Ji L et al (2015) Overexpression of a Miscanthus lutarioriparius NAC gene MlNAC5 confers enhanced drought and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Rep 34(6):943–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Yordanov I, Velikova V, Tsonev T (2000) Plant responses to drought, acclimation, and stress tolerance. Photosynthetica 38:171–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Zhang M, Duan LZ, Zhai J, Li X, Tian B, Wang Z, He, Li Z (2004) Effects of plant growth regulators on water deficit-induced yield loss in soybean. In: Proceedings of the 4th international crop science congress, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  322. Zhang JH, Huang WD, Liu YP et al (2005) Effects of temperature acclimation pretreatment on the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu) under cross-temperature stresses. J Integr Plant Biol 47:959–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Zhang DW, Shao J, Lin J et al (2009) RIP3, an energy metabolism regulator that switches TNF-induced cell death from apoptosis to necrosis. Science 325:332–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Zhao FJ, Lombi E, Breedon T et al (2000) Zinc hyperaccumulation and cellular distribution in Arabidopsis halleri. Plant Cell Environ 23:507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Zhao T, Liang D, Wang P et al (2012) Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the DREB transcription factor gene family in Malus under abiotic stress. Mol Genet Genomics 287(5):423–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Zhou S, Hu W, Deng X et al (2012) Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco. PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052439CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  327. Zhuang J, Chen JM, Yao QH et al (2011) Discovery and expression profile analysis of AP2/ERF family genes from Triticum aestivum. Mol Biol Rep 38(2):745–753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Zitvogel L, Kepp O, Kroemer G (2010) Decoding cell death signals in inflammation and immunity. Cell 140:798–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Lamalakshmi Devi
    • 1
  • Sudhir Kumar
    • 1
  • T. Basanta Singh
    • 1
  • Susheel K. Sharma
    • 1
  • Aruna Beemrote
    • 1
  • Chingakham Premabati Devi
    • 1
  • S. K. Chongtham
    • 2
  • Chongtham Henary Singh
    • 3
  • Rupert Anand Yumlembam
    • 1
  • A. Haribhushan
    • 4
  • N. Prakash
    • 1
  • Shabir H. Wani
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.ICAR-RC-NEH Region, Manipur CentreImphal WestIndia
  2. 2.Potato Research Station, SDAUDeesaIndia
  3. 3.Manipur UniversityCanchipurIndia
  4. 4.Farm Science Centre (KVK)SenapatiIndia
  5. 5.Mountain Research Centre for Field CropsSher-e-Kashmir University of Agriculture Sciences and Technology of KashmirKhudwani AnantnagIndia
  6. 6.Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial SciencesMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations