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Scapula Fractures

  • David Limb
Chapter

Abstract

Fractures of the body of the scapula are usually high-energy injuries resulting from a directly applied force. Fractures of the spine of the scapula and blade are therefore often associated with chest trauma and possibly abdominal and head injury. Fractures of the acromion result from a force applied to the point of the shoulder, and, if downwardly directed, the brachial plexus is vulnerable. High-energy forces directed to the front of the shoulder can tear the acromioclavicular joint apart and, in extreme cases, produce a scapulothoracic dissociation with vascular injury. If the force is transmitted to the scapula through the upper limb, then fractures of the glenoid fossa can occur, with or without glenohumeral dislocation. Of course, any combination of these injuries can occur depending on the energy delivered to the shoulder girdle and its vectors. The surgical management of scapular fractures is most often indicated for displaced injuries including the glenoid fossa. However, the approach differs significantly with fracture location. This chapter is focused on modern reduction and fixation techniques of scapula fractures.

Further Reading

  1. Bartoníček J, Tuček M, Frič V, Obruba P. Fractures of the scapular neck: diagnosis, classifications and treatment. Int Orthop. 2014;38(10):2163–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Lewis S, Argintar E, Jahn R, Zusmanovich M, Itamura J, Rick Hatch GF. Intra-articular scapular fractures: outcomes after internal fixation. J Orthop. 2013;10(4):188–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Mighell MA, Hatzidakis AM, Otto RJ, Watson JT, Cottrell BJ, Cusick MC, Pappou IP. Complex trauma to the shoulder girdle, including the proximal humerus, the clavicle, and the scapula: current concepts in diagnosis and treatment. Instr Course Lect. 2015;64:121–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Pizanis A, Tosounidis G, Braun C, Pohlemann T, Wirbel RJ. The posterior two-portal approach for reconstruction of scapula fractures: results of 39 patients. Injury. 2013;44(11):1630–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Schroder LK, Gauger EM, Gilbertson JA, Cole PA. Functional outcomes after operative management of extra-articular glenoid neck and scapular body fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016;98(19):1623–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Zlowodzki M, Bhandari M, Zelle BA, Kregor PJ, Cole PA. Treatment of scapular fractures: Systematic review of 520 fractures in 22 case series. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20-3:230–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, Chapel Allerton HospitalLeedsUK

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