Challenges in Establishing Cross-Border Resilience

  • Anouck Adrot
  • Frank FiedrichEmail author
  • Andreas Lotter
  • Thomas Münzberg
  • Eric Rigaud
  • Marcus Wiens
  • Wolfgang Raskob
  • Frank Schultmann
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)


This chapter focuses on resilience stakes that characterize urbanizing cross-border regions. While cross-border regions are characterized by multiple sources of vulnerabilities that are inherent to their development and history, knowledge remains partial in relation to how these regions address disasters that could affect both sides of the frontier. For decades, most cross-border regions have been expanding both from economical and institutional perspectives. In the meantime, urban density has been increasing, as well as the complexity of critical infrastructures—for instance, transportation or electricity distribution—that support essential services such as health care. Due to such complexity, these infrastructures represent major vulnerabilities for cross-border regions nowadays. In addition, borderland citizens’ behaviours remain uncertain, due to history and co-existing diverse cultural backgrounds. The chapter introduces the concept of resilience as a valuable lens to investigate disaster management of cross-border regions. More specifically, this chapter proposes to draw on resilience methodologies to address risks related to infrastructure, organization and behaviours in cross-border regions. By doing so, the chapter contributes to a holistic perspective on these vulnerabilities and their management when a disaster strikes. While a large spectrum of European projects has taken into consideration some of cross-border regions’ specificities, a comprehensive approach to cross-border resilience is still missing. We illustrate the relevance of this approach with the example of the French–German cross-border region. Going further, the chapter presents the INCA project that relies on multidisciplinary investigation of cross-border resilience and will deliver an agent-based model to support decision-making in cross-border regions facing disasters.


Urban resilience Cross-border regions Crisis management Risk management Multidisciplinary approach Agent-based modeling German–French frontier Critical infrastructure Social vulnerability 



Parts of the presented work are embedded in the Helmholtz Association’s (HGF) portfolio project “Security Research” and in the critical infrastructure protection activities of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technologies (CEDIM). CEDIM is an interdisciplinary research centre of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany, which is also a member of the International Centre of Excellence for CIs and Strategic Planning (IRDR ICoE-CISP). The HGF’s and CEDIM’s financial support of the work is gratefully acknowledged. Other parts of the presented work are embedded in the research project INCA. The project is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG-FI 2139/3-1 and DFG-SCHU 1189/13-1) and the French National Agency for Research (ANR-16-CE92-0011-01). The project started in March 2017 and will last until February 2020. The DFG’s and ANR’s financial support of the work is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Agnew J (2008) Borders on the mind: re-framing border thinking. Ethics Glob Polit 1(4):175–191Google Scholar
  2. Anderson J, O’Dowd L (1999) Borders, border regions and territoriality: contradictory meanings, changing significance. Reg Stud 33(7):593–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aron R (1984) Paix et guerre entre les nations (1962) Paris, Calmann-Lévy 8:18Google Scholar
  4. Béne C, Godfrey Wood R, Newsham A, Davies M (2012) Resilience: new Utopia or new tyranny? Reflection about the potentials and limits of the concept of resilience in relation to vulnerability reduction programmes. IDS working paper, vol 405Google Scholar
  5. Berg E, Piret E (2006) What kind of border regime is in the making? Towards a differentiated and uneven border strategy. Coop Conflict 41:53–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bharosa N, Lee J, Janssen M, Rao HR (2012) An activity theory analysis of boundary objects in cross-border information systems development for disaster management. Secur Inform 1:15Google Scholar
  7. Bluewin Portal (2016). Bunkern für die Katastrophe: Das sollten Schweizer auf Vorrat haben, Swisscom (Schweiz) AG, Bluewin Portal,–fuer-den-ernstfall–wie-haelt-man-s-in-der-schweiz-.html. Accessed 30 Sept 2016
  8. Boersma K, Engelman E (2012) Organizing cross-border fire brigade response in the Dutch-German border region. J Emerg Manage 10(1):53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boin A, Comfort LK, Demchak C (2010) The rise of resilience. In: Comfort LK, Boin A, Demchak CC (eds) Designing resilience, preparing for extreme incidents. University of Pittsburgh Press, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  10. Bundesministerium des Innern (2016) Konzeption Zivile Verteidigung (KZV)Google Scholar
  11. Cepeda MS (2015) Project DISASTER—Final reportGoogle Scholar
  12. Coleman L (2006) Frequency of Man-Made Disasters in the 20th Century. J Conting Crisis Manage 14(1):3–11Google Scholar
  13. Coleman TS (2011) A practical guide to risk management. The research Foundation of CFA InstituteGoogle Scholar
  14. Comfort LK (2007) Crisis management in hindsight: cognition, communication, coordination, and control. Public Adm Rev 67:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Connor KM, Davidson JRT (2003) Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depress Anxiety 18:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. CRF (City Resilience Framework) (2014) The Rockefeller Foundation, ARUP, © Ove Arup & Partners International Limited 214Google Scholar
  17. Cutter SL, Barnes L, Berry M, Burton C, Evans E, Tate E, Webb JA (2008) A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Glob Environ Change 18:598–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dahles H, Van Hees E (2004) Firefighters across frontiers: two fire brigades cooperating in the Dutch-German borderland. Culture Organ 10(4):315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Sousa L (2012) Understanding European cross-border cooperation: a framework for analysis. J Eur Integr 35:669–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Douglas M, Wildavsky A (1983) Risk and culture, an essay on the selection of technological and environmental dangers. University of California press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  21. German Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance (2010) Drei Ebenen, ein Ziel: BEVÖLKERUNGSSCHUTZ - gemeinsame Aufgabe von Bund, Ländern und Kommunen, BonnGoogle Scholar
  22. Godschalk DR (1991) Disaster mitigation and hazard management. Emergency management, Principles and practice for local government, pp 131–160Google Scholar
  23. Guo R (2015) Cross-border management, theory, method and application. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  24. Hart P (1993) Symbols, rituals and power: the lost dimensions of crisis management. J Contingencies Crisis Manage 1:36–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Ann Rev Ecol SystemGoogle Scholar
  26. Holling CS (1986) The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems local surprise and global change. In: Clark WC, Munn RE (eds) Sustainable development of the biosphere. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Hollnagel E, Woods D, Leveson N (2006) Resilience engineering: concepts and precepts. AshgateGoogle Scholar
  28. Hollnagel E, Pariès J, Woods DD, Wreathall J (eds) (2011) Resilience engineering in practice. A guidebook (Resilience engineering perspectives volume 3). Ashgate, FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  29. Hooper B, Kramsch O (2004) Cross-border governance in the European Union, RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Hurtes KP, Allen LR (2001) Measuring resiliency in youth: the resiliency attitudes and skills profile. Ther Recreation J 35(4):333–347Google Scholar
  31. Institute for Major Incidents (2012) Mémento du maire et des élus locaux: DGv1 – Organisation de la sécurité civile [WWW document]. URL Accessed 11 Jan 2017
  32. (2017) Vorreiter Verwaltungskooperation in Deutschland [WWW document]. URL Accessed 30 Jan 2017
  33. Ionescu S (2011) Traité de resilience assisté. Presse Universitaires de FranceGoogle Scholar
  34. ISO 31000:2009 Risk management—principles and guidelines, provides principles, framework and a process for managing riskGoogle Scholar
  35. Jha AK, Miner TW, Stanton-Geddes Z (2013) Building urban resilience. Principles, tools, and practice. International bank for reconstruction and development/The World BankGoogle Scholar
  36. Kanai JM (2016) The pervasiveness of neoliberal territorial design: cross-border infrastructure planning in South America since the introduction of IIRSA. Geoforum 69:160–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kraudzun T (2012) From the Pamir frontier to international borders: exchange relations of the borderland population. Subverting Borders (Springer)Google Scholar
  38. Lindel MK, Prater C, Perry RW (2007) Introduction to emergency management. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Masterson JH, Peacock WG, Van Zandt SS, Grover H, Schwarz LF, Cooper JT Jr (2000) Planning for community resilience. A handbook for reducing vulnerability to disasters. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  40. Mills A (2015) The law applicable to cross-border defamation on social media: whose law governs free speech in ‘Facebookistan’? J Media Law 7:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Newman D (2006) The lines that continue to separate us: borders in our borderless world. Prog Hum Geogr 30:143–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Orloff L (2011) Managing spontaneous community volunteers in disasters. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  43. Pappert T, Starke M-U, Brauner F, Mudimu OA, Lechleuthner A (2015) Incident-based decision support systems to improve user-oriented communication of cross-border disaster incident. In: Presented at the 2015 international crisis and risk communication conference, Orlando, Florida, USAGoogle Scholar
  44. Parizot, C (2006) Entrepreneurs without Borders. European Studies Center, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Retrieved from
  45. Pécoud A, De Guchteneire P (2006) International migration, border controls and human rights: assessing the relevance of a right to mobility. J Borderlands Stud 21:69–86Google Scholar
  46. Perkmann M (2003) Cross-border regions in Europe significance and drivers of regional cross-border co-operation. Eur Urban Reg Stud 10:153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Perry RW, Quarantelli EL (2005) What is a Disaster? New answers to old questions (Xlibris Corporation)Google Scholar
  48. Petrakos GC (1997) The regional structure of Albania, Bulgaria and Greece: implications for cross-border cooperation and development. Eur Urban Reg Stud 4(3):195–210Google Scholar
  49. Pikner T (2008) Reorganizing cross-border governance capacity: the case of the Helsinki—Tallinn Euregio. Eur Urban Reg Stud 15(3):211–227Google Scholar
  50. Reich JW, Zautra AJ, Stuart Hall J (2010) Handbook for adult resilience. The Guilford PressGoogle Scholar
  51. Reitel B (2002) Villes et frontières. Anthropos, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  52. Reitel B (2006) Governance in cross-border agglomerations in Europe: the examples of Basle and Strasbourg. Europa Regional 14(1):9–21Google Scholar
  53. Reitel B (2007) Les agglomérations transfrontalières: des systèmes urbains en voie d’intégration? les espaces urbains de la “frontière” du territoire français. Geographica Helvetica 62(1):5–15Google Scholar
  54. Rigaud E, Neveu C, Duvenci-Langa S, Obrist MO, Rigaud S (2013) Proposition of an organisational resilience assessment framework dedicated to railway traffic management. In: Dadashi N, Scott A, Wilson JR, Mills A (eds) Rail human factors: supporting reliability, safety and cost reduction, Taylor & Francis, pp 727–732Google Scholar
  55. Russo AM (2012) Globalization and cross-border cooperation in EU law: a transnational research agenda. Perspectives on Federalism 4(3):1–23Google Scholar
  56. Seville E (2009) Resilience. Great concept … but what does it mean for organizations? Community resilience: research, planning and civil defence emergency management, vol 22. New Zealand Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency ManagementGoogle Scholar
  57. Shen J (2014) Not quite a twin city: cross-boundary integration in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Habitat Int 42:138–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Smallbone D, Labrianidis L, Venesaar U, Welter F, Zashev P (2007) Challenges and prospects of cross border cooperation in the context of EU enlargement, sixth framework programme, (Priority 7: citizens and governance in a knowledge-based Society). Kingston UniversityGoogle Scholar
  59. Tim Y, Pan SL, Ractham P, Kaewkitipong L (2017) Digitally enabled disaster response: the emergence of social media as boundary objects in a flooding disaster. Inf Syst J 27:197–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. TISP (The Infrastructure Security Partnership) (2011) Regional disaster resilience, a guide for developing an action plan. The infrastructure security partnershipGoogle Scholar
  61. Treurniet W, Van Buul-Besseling K, Wolbers J (2012) Collaboration awareness—a necessity in crisis response coordination. In: Rothkrantz L, Ristvej J, Franco Z (eds)Google Scholar
  62. UNISDR (2012) How to make cities more resilient. A handbook for local government leaders, United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Wearne S, White-Hunt K (2014) Managing the urgent and unexpected. Twelve project cases and a commentary. Gower Publishing LimitedGoogle Scholar
  64. Weick KE, Sutcliffe KM (2007) Managing the unexpected, resilient performance in an age of uncertainty. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Wessendorf S (2016) Second-generation transnationalism and roots migration: cross-border lives, RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  66. Wildavsky A (1988) Searching for safety. Social Philosophy and Policy Center, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  67. Wismar M, Palm W, Figueras J, Ernst K, Van Ginneken E (2011) Cross-border health care in the European Union: mapping and analysing practices and policies. In: Cross-border health care in the European Union: mapping and analysing practices and policies, World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  68. Yoder JA (2003) Bridging the European Union and Eastern Europe: cross-border cooperation and the Euro-regions. Reg Fed Stud 13(3):90–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anouck Adrot
    • 1
  • Frank Fiedrich
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andreas Lotter
    • 5
  • Thomas Münzberg
    • 3
  • Eric Rigaud
    • 4
  • Marcus Wiens
    • 3
  • Wolfgang Raskob
    • 3
  • Frank Schultmann
    • 3
  1. 1.DRM UMR CNRS 7780Université Paris-Dauphine PSL - Research UniversityParisFrance
  2. 2.Institute for Public Safety and Emergency ManagementUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany
  3. 3.Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)KarlsruheGermany
  4. 4.CRCMINES ParisTech, PSL - Research UniversitySophia-AntipolisFrance
  5. 5.Institute for Public Safety and Emergency ManagementUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany

Personalised recommendations