Advertisement

Incorporating Coreference to Automatic Evaluation of Coherence in Essays

  • Michal NovákEmail author
  • Kateřina Rysová
  • Magdaléna Rysová
  • Jiří Mírovský
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10583)

Abstract

The paper contributes to the task of automated evaluation of surface coherence. It introduces a coreference-related extension to the EVALD applications, which aim at evaluating essays produced by native and non-native students learning Czech. Having successfully employed the coreference resolver and coreference-related features, our system outperforms the original EVALD approaches by up to 8% points. The paper also introduces a dataset for non-native speakers’ evaluation, which was collected from multiple corpora and the parts with missing annotation of coherence grade were manually judged. The resulting corpora contains sufficient number of examples for each of the grading levels.

Keywords

Evaluation of coherence Acquisition corpora processing Coherence Anaphora Coreference Discourse 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge support from the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic (project No. DG16P02B016 Automatic Evaluation of Text Coherence in Czech). This work has been using language resources developed, stored and distributed by the LINDAT/CLARIN project of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (project LM2015071).

References

  1. 1.
    Attali, Y., Burstein, J.: Automated essay scoring with e-rater® V.2. J. Technol. Learn. Assess. 4(3), 1–31 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bejček, E., Hajičová, E., Hajič, J., Jínová, P., Kettnerová, V., Kolářová, V., Mikulová, M., Mírovský, J., Nedoluzhko, A., Panevová, J., Poláková, L., Ševčíková, M., Štěpánek, J., Zikánová, Š.: Prague Dependency Treebank 3.0. ÚFAL MFF UK, Prague (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boyd, A., Hana, J., Nicolas, L., Meurers, D., Wisniewski, K., Abel, A., Schöne, K., Štindlová, B., Vettori, C.: The MERLIN corpus: learner language and the CEFR. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2014), pp. 1281–1288. European Language Resources Association, Reykjavík (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burstein, J., Marcu, D., Knight, K.: Finding the WRITE stuff: automatic identification of discourse structure in student essays. IEEE Intell. Syst. 18(1), 32–39 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dikli, S.: An overview of automated scoring of essays. J. Technol. Learn. Assess. 5(1), 1–36 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hancke, J., Meurers, D.: Exploring CEFR classification for German based on rich linguistic modeling. Learner Corpus Research 2013, Book of Abstracts, Bergen, Norway, pp. 54–56 (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Novák, M.: Coreference resolution system not only for Czech. In: ITAT 2017: Information Technologies-Applications and Theory (Proceedings). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, Martinské Hole (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Novák, V., Žabokrtský, Z.: Feature engineering in maximum spanning tree dependency parser. In: Matoušek, V., Mautner, P. (eds.) TSD 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4629, pp. 92–98. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74628-7_14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Page, E.B.: The use of the computer in analyzing student essays. Int. Rev. Educ. 14(2), 210–225 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pilán, I., Volodina, E., Zesch, T.: Predicting proficiency levels in learner writings by transferring a linguistic complexity model from expert-written coursebooks. In: COLING 2016, 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Conference: Technical Papers, pp. 2101–2111. ACL, Osaka (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Poláková, L., Mírovský, J., Nedoluzhko, A., Jínová, P., Zikánová, Š., Hajičová, E.: Introducing the Prague discourse Treebank 1.0. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, pp. 91–99. Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing, Nagoya (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Popel, M., Žabokrtský, Z.: TectoMT: modular NLP framework. In: Loftsson, H., Rögnvaldsson, E., Helgadóttir, S. (eds.) NLP 2010. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 6233, pp. 293–304. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14770-8_33 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prasad, R., Dinesh, N., Lee, A., Miltsakaki, E., Robaldo, L., Joshi, A., Webber, B.: The Penn discourse Treebank 2.0. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2008), pp. 2961–2968. European Language Resources Association, Marrakech (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rysová, K., Mírovský, J., Novák, M., Rysová, M.: EVALD 1.0. ÚFAL MFF UK, Prague (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rysová, K., Mírovský, J., Novák, M., Rysová, M.: EVALD 1.0 for Foreigners. ÚFAL MFF UK, Prague (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rysová, K., Rysová, M., Mírovský, J.: Automatic evaluation of surface coherence in L2 texts in Czech. In: Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Computational Linguistics and Speech Processing ROCLING XXVIII, pp. 214–228. National Cheng Kung University, The Association for Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing (ACLCLP), Taipei (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rysová, K., Rysová, M., Mírovský, J., Novák, M.: Automatic evaluation of discourse in Czech - software applications EVALD 1.0 and EVALD 1.0 for foreigners. In: Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing 2017. RANLP 2017 Organising Committee/ACL, Varna (2017)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rysová, M., Synková, P., Mírovský, J., Hajičová, E., Nedoluzhko, A., Ocelák, R., Pergler, J., Poláková, L., Pavlíková, V., Zdeňková, J., Zikánová, Š.: Prague Discourse Treebank 2.0. ÚFAL MFF UK, Prague (2016)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Šebesta, K., Bedřichová, Z., Šormová, K., et al.: AKCES 5 (CzeSL-SGT). ÚTKL FF UK, Prague (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Šebesta, K., Goláňová, H., Letafková, J., et al.: AKCES 1. ÚTKL FF UK, Prague (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sgall, P., Hajičová, E., Panevová, J., Mey, J.: The Meaning of the Sentence in its Semantic and Pragmatic Aspects. Springer, Heidelberg (1986)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Simpson, E.H.: Measurement of diversity. Nature 163, 688 (1949). doi: 10.1038/163688a0 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Straková, J., Straka, M., Hajič, J.: Open-source tools for morphology, lemmatization, POS tagging and named entity recognition. In: Proceedings of 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations, pp. 13–18. Association for Computational Linguistics, Baltimore (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vajjala, S., Lõo, K.: Automatic CEFR level prediction for Estonian learner text. In: Proceedings of the Third Workshop on NLP for Computer-Assisted Language Learning at SLTC 2014, no. 107, pp. 113–127. Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköping (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wonowidjojo, G., Hartono, M.S., Frendy, Suhartono, D., Asmani, A.B.: Automated essay scoring by combining syntactically enhanced latent semantic analysis and coreference resolution. In: 6th International Workshop on Computer Science and Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 580–584 (2016)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yule, G.U.: The Statistical Study of Literary Vocabulary. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1944)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zupanc, K., Bosnić, Z.: Automated essay evaluation with semantic analysis. Knowl.-Based Syst. 120(3), 118–132 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michal Novák
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kateřina Rysová
    • 1
  • Magdaléna Rysová
    • 1
  • Jiří Mírovský
    • 1
  1. 1.Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Institute of Formal and Applied LinguisticsPrague 1Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations