Advertisement

Caatinga pp 151-180 | Cite as

Species Composition, Biogeography, and Conservation of the Caatinga Lizards

  • Daniel Oliveira Mesquita
  • Gabriel Corrêa Costa
  • Adrian Antonio Garda
  • Fagner Ribeiro Delfim

Abstract

The Caatinga is one of the few semiarid regions in the subtropical zone surrounded by humid areas. Its fauna was previously considered impoverished and with few endemics, but many surveys have been conducted in the last two decades and it is now possible to perform a more accurate and realistic analysis of Caatinga lizard diversity and biogeography. Our objectives in the present chapter are to (1) review the literature on the origin and diversification of Caatinga lizards; (2) provide an updated species list and categorize distribution patterns; (3) identify potential areas that could hold high species richness; and (4) evaluate whether the proposed division of the Caatinga into different ecoregions reflects patterns of lizard endemism. We found 79 lizard species belonging to 13 families. Among them, 49 are typical from the Caatinga, eight occur in forested habitats, nine are typical from Cerrado habitats, three are endemic to humid forest enclaves (‘brejos de altitude’) and eight occur only in rocky outcrops from the Espinhaço Mountain Range. The areas of endemism recovered corroborate most of the proposed ecoregions, and the most diverse areas are at the marginal portions of the Caatinga, with nuclear areas showing lower richness potentials. We identified 38 endemic species most from paleoclimatic dunes from São Francisco River and ‘Raso da Catarina’. We can now confirm that previous suggestions about the Caatinga fauna being species poor and having low endemism are not correct. It is clear that the Caatinga shares part of its fauna with Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, and even with Chaco, but the number of endemics is relatively high and still rising as new data become available. With the results generated here we indicate some directions for future studies and conservation priorities.

Keywords

Squamata Natural history Ecology Origin 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for research fellowships received by Daniel Mesquita, Adrian Garda, and Gabriel Costa. Fagner Delfim thanks the Graduate Program in Zoology of the Federal University of Paraiba and CNPq for a doctorate fellowship. We also thank the museum curators who gave us access to the examined material.

References

  1. Ab’Saber AN (1970) Províncias geológicas e domínios morfoclimáticos do Brasil. Geomorfologia 20:1–26Google Scholar
  2. Ab’Saber AN (1974) O domínio morfoclimático semi-árido das Caatingas brasileiras. Geomorfologia 43:1–39Google Scholar
  3. Ab’Saber AN (1977) Os domínios morfoclimáticos da América do Sul. Primeira aproximação Geomorfologia 52:1–21Google Scholar
  4. Albino ML (1996) The south American fóssil Squamata (Reptilia: Lepidosauria). Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen 30:185–202Google Scholar
  5. Albuquerque UP, Lima Araújo E, El-Deir ACA, Lima ALA, Souto A, Bezerra BM, Ferraz EMN, Freire EMX, Sampaio EVSB, Las-Casas FMG, Moura GJB, Pereira GA, Melo JG, Ramos MA, Rodal MJN, Schiel N, Lyra-Neves RM, Alves RRN, Azevedo-Júnior SM, Telino Júnior WR, Severi W (2012) Caatinga revisited: ecology and conservation of an important seasonal dry forest. Sci World J 2012:2–19Google Scholar
  6. Araújo FS, Rodal MJN, Barbosa MRV, Martins FR (2005) Repartição da flora lenhosa no domínio da Caatinga. In: Araújo FS, Rodal MJN, Barbosa MRV (eds) Análise das Variações da Biodiversidade do Bioma Caatinga: Suporte a Estratégias Regionais de Conservação. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília, pp 15–34Google Scholar
  7. Arias F, Carvalho CM, Rodrigues MT, Zaher H (2011a) Two new species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) from the Caatinga, Northwest Brazil. Zootaxa 2787:37–54Google Scholar
  8. Arias F, Carvalho CM, Rodrigues MT, Zaher H (2011b) Two new species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) of the C. ocellifer group, from Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3022:1–21Google Scholar
  9. Arzabe C, Skuk G, Santana GG, Delfim FR, Lima YCC, Abrantes SHF (2005) Herpetofauna da área do Curimataú, Paraíba. In: Araújo FS, Rodal MJN, Barbosa MRV (eds) Análise das Variações da Biodiversidade do Bioma Caatinga: Suporte a Estratégias Regionais de Conservação. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília, pp 259–274Google Scholar
  10. Báez AM, Gasparini Z (1979) The South America herpertofauna: an evaluation of the fossil record. In: Duellman WE (ed) The South America Herpertofauna: It’s origin, evolution and dispersal. Museum of Natural History. University of Kansas, Kansas, p 485Google Scholar
  11. Barbosa MRV, Arzabe C, Attayde JL, Bandeira AG, Crispim MC, Freire EMX, Barbosa JEL, Panosso R, Quirino ZGM, Souza JERT, Ximenes MFFM (2013) Caatinga: estrutura e funcionamento de ambientes terrestres e aquáticos. In: Tabarelli M, Rocha CFD, Romanowski HP, Rocha O, Lacerda LD (eds) PELD–CNPq: dez anos do Programa de Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração no Brasil: achados, lições e perspectivas. Editora Universitária UFPE, Recife, pp 337–366Google Scholar
  12. Bauer AR (1993) Africa and south america relationships: a perspective from the reptilia. In: Goldblatt P (ed) Biological relationships between Africa and South America. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, p 630Google Scholar
  13. Borges-Nojosa DM, Caramaschi U (2005) Composição e análise comparativa da diversidade e das afinidades biogeográficas dos lagartos e anfisbenídeos (Squamata) dos brejos nordestinos. In: Leal IR, Tabarelli M, Silva JMC (eds) Ecologia e Conservação da Caatinga. Ed. Universitária-UFPE, Recife, pp 463–512Google Scholar
  14. Borges-Nojosa DM, Cascon P (2005) Herpetofauna da área Reserva da Serra das Almas, Ceará. In: Araújo FS, Rodal MJN, Barbosa MRV (eds) Análise das Variações da Biodiversidade do Bioma Caatinga: Suporte a Estratégias Regionais de Conservação. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília, pp 243–273Google Scholar
  15. Borges-Nojosa DM, Caramaschi U, Rodrigues MT (2016) A new species of lizard Placosoma Tschudi, 1847 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the relictual forest mountains of the state of Ceará, Brazil. Zootaxa 4169:160–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brites VLC, Faria RG, Mesquita DO, Colli GR (2009) The herpetofauna of the neotropical savannas. Eolss. Publishers, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Caldas FLS, Costa TB, Laranjeiras DO, Mesquita DO, Garda AA (2016) Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga V: Seridó Ecological Station (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil). Check list 12:1–14. doi:10.15560/12.4.1929 Google Scholar
  18. Carvalho ALG (2013) On the distribution and conservation of the south American lizard genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae). Zootaxa 3640:42–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cassimiro J, Rodrigues MT (2009) A new species of lizard genus Gymnodactylus Spix, 1825 (Squamata: Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) from Serra do Sincorá, northeastern Brazil, and the status of G. carvalhoi Vanzolini, 2005. Zootaxa:38–52Google Scholar
  20. Cavalcanti LBQ, Costa TB, Colli GR, Costa GC, França FGR, Mesquita DO, Palmeira CNS, Pelegrin N, Soares AHB, Tucker DB, Garda AA (2014) Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga II: Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí, Brazil. Check list 10:18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colli GR (2005) As origens e a diversificação da herpetofauna do Cerrado. In: Scariot A, Souza-Silva JC, Felfili JM (eds) Cerrado: Ecologia, Biodiversidade e Conservação. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília, pp 247–264Google Scholar
  22. Colli GR, Bastos RP, Araújo AFB (2002) The character and dynamics of the Cerrado herpetofauna. In: Oliveira PS, Marquis RJ (eds) The Cerrados of Brazil: ecology and natural history of a Neotropical savanna. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 223–241Google Scholar
  23. Costa GC, Nogueira C, Machado RB, Colli GR (2007) Squamate richness in the Brazilian Cerrado and its environmental-climatic associations. Divers Distrib 13:714–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cunha OR (1966) Sôbre uma nova espécie de lagarto do estado de Minas Gerais Placosoma cipoense sp. n. (Lacertilia, Teiidae). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, série. Fortschr Zool 61:1–9Google Scholar
  25. De-Carvalho CB, Caldas FLS, Santana DO, Noronha MV, Freitas EB, Faria RG, Santos RA (2010) Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Acratosaura mentalis (Amaral, 1933): distribution extension and geographic distribution map. Check list 6:434–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Delfim FR, Freire EMX (2007) Os lagartos gimnoftalmídeos (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) do Cariri paraibano e do Seridó do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil: considerações acerca da distribuição geográfica e ecologia. Oecologia Brasiliensis 11:365–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Delfim FR, Gonçalves EM, Silva ST (2006) Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Psilophthalmus paeminosus: distribution extension, new state record. Check list 2:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Delfim FR, Mesquita DO, Fernandes-Ferreira H, Cavalcanti LBQ (2011) Procellosaurinus erythrocercus Rodrigues, 1991 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): distribution extension. Check List (São Paulo Online) 7:856–858Google Scholar
  29. Domingos FMCB, Bosque RJ, Cassimiro J, Colli GR, Rodrigues MT, Santos MG, Beheregaray LB (2014) Out of the deep: cryptic speciation in a Neotropical gecko (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) revealed by species delimitation methods. Mol Phylogenet Evol 80:113–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Duellman WE (1979) The South America herpertofauna: a panoramic view. In: Duellman WE (ed) The South America Herpertofauna: It’s origin, evolution and dispersal. Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Kansas, pp 1–27Google Scholar
  31. Eldredge N, Cracraft J (1980) Phylogenetic patterns and the evolutionary process: method and theory in comparative biology. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Estes R, Báez A (1985) Herpetofaunas of north and South America during the late cretaceous and Cenozoic: evidence for interchange? In: Stehli FG, Webb SD (eds) The great American biotic interchange. Plenum Press, New York, pp 139–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Freire EMX, Feio RN, Pombal Jr. JP (2000) Geographic distribution: Phyllopezus periosus. Herpetological Review 31:54–54Google Scholar
  34. Freire EMX, Skuk GOS, Kolodiuk MF, Ribeiro LB, Maggi BS, Rodrigues LS, Vieira WLS, Falcao ACGP (2009) Répteis Squamata das Caatingas do seridó do Rio Grande do Norte e do cariri da Paraíba: síntese do conhecimento atual e perspectivas. In: Freire EMX (ed) Recursos Naturais das Caatingas: Uma Visão Multidisciplinar. Editora da UFRN – EDUFRN, Natal, pp 51–84Google Scholar
  35. Freitas MA, Silva TFS (2007) A Herpetofauna das Caatingas e Áreas de Altitudes do Nordeste Brasileiro. USEB, PelotasGoogle Scholar
  36. Frost DR, Etheridge R (1989) A phylogenetic analysis and taxonomy of iguanian lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 81:1–65Google Scholar
  37. Garda AA, Costa GC, Franca FGR, Giugliano LG, Leite GS, Mesquita DO, Nogueira C, Tavares-Bastos L, Vasconcellos MM, Vieira GHC, Vitt LJ, Werneck FP, Wiederhecker HC, Coll GR (2012) Reproduction, body size, and diet of Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in two contrasting environments in Brazil. J Herpetol 46:2–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garda AA, Costa TB, Silva CRS, Mesquita DO, Faria RG, Conceição BM, Silva IRS, Ferreira AS, Rocha SM, Palmeira CNS, Rodrigues R, Ferrari SF, Torquato S (2013) Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga I: Raso da Catarina Ecological Station (Bahia, Brazil). Check list 9:405–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garda AA, Medeiros PHS, Lion MB, Brito MRM, Vieira GHC, Mesquita DO (2014) Autoecology of Dryadosaura nordestina (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Atlantic forest fragments in northeastern Brazil. Fortschr Zool 31:418–425Google Scholar
  40. Gehara M, Garda AA, Werneck FP, Oliveira EF, da Fonseca EM, Camurugi F, Magalhães FM, Lanna FM, Sites JW Jr, Marques R, Silveira-Filho R, São Pedro VA, Colli GR, Costa GC, Burbrink FT (2017) Estimating synchronous demographic changes across populations using hABC and its application for a herpetological community from northeastern Brazil. Mol Ecol. 26: 4756–4771Google Scholar
  41. Guyer C, Savage JM (1986) Cladistic relationships among anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae). Syst Zool 35:509–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Haffer J (1969) Speciation in amazonian forest birds. Science 165:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) Past: Paleontological Statistics software package for education and data analysis http://folk.uio.no/ohammer/past/
  44. Heyer WR (1978) Systematics of the fuscus group of the frog genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Sciencie Bulletin 29:1–85Google Scholar
  45. Heyer WR, Maxson LR (1982) Distributions, relationships, and zoogeography of lowland frogs – the Leptodactylus Complex in South America, with special reference to Amazonia. In: Prance GT (ed) Biological differentiation in the tropics. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 375–388Google Scholar
  46. Leal IR, Silva JMC, Tabarelli M, Lacher TE Jr (2005) Changing the course of biodiversity conservation in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. Conserv Biol 19:701–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Magalhães FMM, Laranjeiras DO, Costa TB, Juncá FA, Mesquita DO, Röhr DL, Silva WP, Vieira GHC, Garda AA (2015) Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga IV: Chapada Diamantina National Park, Bahia, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 8:243–261Google Scholar
  48. Mares MA, Willig MR, Streilen KE, Latcher TE (1981) The mammals of northeastern Brazil; a preliminary assessment. Annals of Carnegie museum of. Nat Hist 50:81–137Google Scholar
  49. Morrone JJ (2014) Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) revisited. J Biogeogr 41:842–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nogueira C, Ribeiro S, Costa GC, Colli GR (2011) Vicariance and endemism in a Neotropical savanna hotspot: distribution patterns of Cerrado squamate reptiles. J Biogeogr 38:1907–1922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Oliveira EF, Gehara M, São-Pedro VA, Chen X, Myers EA, Burbrink FT, Mesquita DO, Garda AA, Colli GR, Rodrigues MT, Arias F, Zaher H, Santos RML, Costa GC (2015) Speciation with gene flow in whiptail lizards from a Neotropical xeric biome. Mol Ecol 24:5957–5975CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Parrish JT (1993) Palaeoclimatic history of the opening south Atlantic. In: George W, Lavocat R (eds) The Africa-South America connection. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 28–43Google Scholar
  53. Pascual R, Jaureguizar EO (1990) Evolving climates and mammal faunas in Cenozoic South America. J Hum Evol 19:23–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Passos DC, Lima DC, Borges-Nojosa DM (2011) A new species of Tropidurus (Squamata, Tropiduridae) of the semitaeniatus group from a semiarid area in Northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 2930:60–68Google Scholar
  55. Pedrosa IMMC, Costa TB, Faria RG, França FGR, Laranjeiras DO, Oliveira TCSP, Palmeira CNS, Torquato S, Mott T, Vieira GHC, Garda AA (2013) Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga III: the Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco, Brazil. Biota Neotropica 14:1–12Google Scholar
  56. Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Schapire RE (2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecol Model 190:231–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Prado DE (2003) As Caatingas da América do Sul. In: Leal IR, Tabarelli M, Silva JMC (eds) Ecologia e Conservação da Caatinga. Editora Universitária UFPE, Recife, pp 3–73Google Scholar
  58. Recoder RS, Werneck FP, Teixeira M Jr, Coll GR, Sites JW Jr, Rodrigues MT (2014) Geographic variation and systematic review of the lizard genus Vanzosaura (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae), with the description of a new species. Zool J Linnean Soc 171:206–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ribeiro SC, Roberto IJ, Sales DL, Ávila RW, Almeida WO (2012) Amphibians and reptiles from the Araripe bioregion, northeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48:133–146Google Scholar
  60. Rizzini CT (1997) Tratado de Fitogeografia do Brasil, 2nd edn. Ed. Âmbito Cultural, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  61. Rodrigues MT (1981) Uma nova espécie de Tropidurus do Brasil (Sauria, Iguanidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 34:145–149Google Scholar
  62. Rodrigues MT (1984a) Nothobachia ablephara: novo gênero e espécie do Nordeste do Brasil (Sauria, Teiidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 35:361–366Google Scholar
  63. Rodrigues MT (1984b) Uma nova espécie brasileira de Tropidurus com crista dorsal (Sauria, Iguanidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 35:169–175Google Scholar
  64. Rodrigues MT (1986) Um novo Tropidurus com crista dorsal do Brasil, com comentários sobre suas relações distribuição e origem (Sauria, Iguanidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 36:171–179Google Scholar
  65. Rodrigues MT (1987) Sistemática, ecologia e zoogeografia dos Tropidurus do grupo Torquatus ao sul do Rio Amazonas (Sauria, Iguanidae). Arquivos de Zoologia, São Paulo 31:105–230Google Scholar
  66. Rodrigues MT (1991a) Herpetofauna das dunas interiores do Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brasil. I. Introdução à área e descrição de um novo gênero de microteiídeos (Calyptommatus) com nota sobre sua ecologia, distribuição e especiação (Sauria, Teiidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 37:285–320Google Scholar
  67. Rodrigues MT (1991b) Herpetofauna das dunas interiores do Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brasil. II. Psilophthalmus: Um novo gênero de microteiidae sem pálpebra (Sauria, Teiidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 37:321–327Google Scholar
  68. Rodrigues MT (1991c) Herpetofauna das dunas interiores do Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brasil. III. Procellosaurinus: Um novo gênero de microteiídeos sem pálpebra, com a redefinição do gênero Gymnophthalmus (Sauria, Teiidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 37:329–342Google Scholar
  69. Rodrigues MT (1991d) Herpetofauna das dunas interiores do Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brasil. IV. Uma nova espécie de Typhlops (Ophidia, Typhlopidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 37:343–346Google Scholar
  70. Rodrigues MT (1993) Herpetofauna of palaeoquaternary sand dunes of the middle São Francisco river: Bahia: Brasil. VI. Two new species of Phimophis (Serpentes: Colubridae) with notes on the origin of psammophilic adaptations. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 38:187–198Google Scholar
  71. Rodrigues MT (1996) Lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians from the quaternary sand dunes of the middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. J Herpetol 30:513–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rodrigues MT (2005a) The conservation of the Brazilian reptiles: challenges for a megadiversity country. Conserv Biol 19:659–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rodrigues MT (2005b) Herpetofauna da Caatinga. In: Leal IR, Tabarelli M, Silva JMC (eds) Ecologia e Conservação da Caatinga, 2a edn. Editora Universitária UFPE, Recife, pp 181–236Google Scholar
  74. Rodrigues MT, Borges DM (1997) A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from a relictual forest in a semiarid northeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 53:1–6Google Scholar
  75. Rodrigues MT, Santos EM (2008) A new genus and species of eyelid-less and limb reduced gymnophthalmid lizard from northeastern Brazil (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae). Zootaxa 1873:50–60Google Scholar
  76. Rodrigues MT, Zaher H, Curcio F (2001) A new species of lizard, genus Calyptommatus, from Caatingas of the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae). Papéis Avulsos de. Fortschr Zool 41:529–546Google Scholar
  77. Rodrigues MT, Dixo M, Pavan D, Verdade VK (2002) A new species of Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnopthalmidae) from the remnant Atlantic forests of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de. Fortschr Zool 42:335–350Google Scholar
  78. Rodrigues MT, Freire EMX, Pellegrino KCM, Sites JW Jr (2005) Phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and species of microteiid lizard from the Atlantic forest of north-eastern Brazil (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae). Zool J Linnean Soc 144:543–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rodrigues MT, Freitas MA, Silva TFS, Bertolotto CEV (2006) A new species of lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata, Leiosauridae) from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil, with a key to species. Phyllomedusa 5:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rodrigues MT, Cassimiro J, De Freitas MA, Silva TFS (2009a) A new microteiid lizard of the genus Acratosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Serra do Sincorá, State of Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa:17–29Google Scholar
  81. Rodrigues MT, Cassimiro J, Pavan D, Curcio FF, Verdade VK, Pellegrino KCM (2009b) A new genus of microteiid lizard from the Caparaó mountains, southeastern Brazil, with a discussion of relationships among Gymnophthalminae (Squamata). Am Mus Novit 3673:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rodrigues KC, Delfim FR, Castro CSS, França FGR, Filho EL, Mesquita DO, Oliveira FA, Santos AAA, Ferrari SF, Valença-Montenegro MM (2013a) Strobilurus torquatus Wiegmann, 1834 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): new records from the Brazilian state of Paraíba and a geographic distribution map. Check list 9:614–617Google Scholar
  83. Rodrigues MT, Teixeira M Jr, Dal Vechio F, Amaro RC, Guerrero AC, Damasceno R, Roscito JG, Nunes PMS, Recoder RS (2013b) Rediscovery of the earless microteiid lizard Anotosaura collaris Amaral, 1933 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): a redescription complemented by osteological, hemipenial, molecular, karyological, physiological and ecological data. Zootaxa 3731:345–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rodrigues MT, Recoder R, Teixeira-Jr M, Roscito JG, Guerrero AC, Nunes PMS, Freitas MA, Fernandes DS, Bocchiglieri A, Vechio FD, Leite FSF, Nogueira CC, Damasceno R, Pellegrino KCM, Argôlo AJS, Amaro RC (2017) A morphological and molecular study of Psilops, a replacement name for the Brazilian microteiid lizard genus Psilophthalmus Rodrigues 1991 (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae), with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 4286:451–482. 10.11646/zootaxa.4286.4.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Romero EJ (1993) South American paleofloras. In: Goldblatt P (ed) Biological relationships between Africa and South America. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, pp 62–85Google Scholar
  86. Rosen BR (1988) From fossils to earth history: applied historical biogeography. In: Myers AA, Giller PS (eds) Analytical biogeography an integrated approach to the study of animal and plant Distribuitions. Chapman and Hall, London/New York/Tokio/Melborne/Madras, p 578Google Scholar
  87. Rosen DE (1992) Empiricism and the biogeographical black box: concepts and methods in marine palaeobiogeography. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 92:171–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Silva JMC (1995) Biogeografic analysis of the South American Cerrado avifauna. Steenstrupia 21:49–67Google Scholar
  89. Silva JMC, Bates JM (2002) Biogegraphic patterns and conservation in the south American Cerrado: a tropical savanna hotspot. Bioscience 52:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tricart J (1985) Existence de periodes sèches au quaternaire en Amazonie et dans les régions voisines. Revue de Geomorpologie Dynamique 4:145–158Google Scholar
  91. Uetz PE, Hošek J (2016) The reptile database. Accessed Uetz P, Jirí H (eds) The reptile database. http://www.reptile-database.org/. Accessed 17 July 2017
  92. Vanzolini PE (1974) Ecological and geographical distribution of lizards in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil (Sauria). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 28:61–90Google Scholar
  93. Vanzolini PE (1976) On the lizards of a Cerrado-Caatinga contact, evolutionary and zoogeographical implications (Sauria). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 29:111–119Google Scholar
  94. Vanzolini PE (1981) A quasi-historical approach to the natural history of the differentiation of reptiles in tropical geographic isolates. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 34:189–204Google Scholar
  95. Vanzolini PE (1988) Distribution patterns of south American lizards. In: Heyer WR, Vanzolini PE (eds) Proceedings of a workshop on Neotropical distribution patterns. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, pp 317–343Google Scholar
  96. Vanzolini PE, Heyer WR (1985) The american herpetofauna and the interchange. In: Stehli FG, Webb SD (eds) The great American biotic interchange, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York and London, p 532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vanzolini PE, Williams EE (1970) South American anoles: the geographic differentiation and evolution of the Anolis chrysolepis species group (Sauria, Iguanidae). Arquivos de Zoologia, São Paulo 19:1–298Google Scholar
  98. Vanzolini PE, Williams EE (1981) The vanishing refuge: a mechanism for ecogeographic speciation. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 34:251–255Google Scholar
  99. Vanzolini PE, Ramos-Costa AMM, Vitt LJ (1980) Répteis das Caatingas. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de JaneiroCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Velloso AL, Sampaio EVSB, Pareyn FGC (2002) Ecorregiões propostas para o Bioma Caatinga. Associação Plantas do Nordeste – Instituto de Conservação Ambiental – The Nature Conservancy do Brasil, RecifeGoogle Scholar
  101. Vitt LJ (1995) The ecology of tropical lizards in the Caatinga of northeast Brazil. Occasional papers of the Oklahoma museum of. Nat Hist 1:1–29Google Scholar
  102. Vogt RC, Bernhard R (2003) Biodiversidade e Biogeografia de Répteis e Anfíbios da Amazônia. Instituto Amazônia, ManausGoogle Scholar
  103. Webb SD (1978) A history of savanna vertebrates in the new world. Part II: South America and the great interchange. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 9:393–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Werneck FP (2011) The diversification of eastern south American open vegetation biomes: historical biogeography and perspectives. Quat Sci Rev 30:1630–1648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Werneck FP, Colli GR (2006) The lizard assemblage from seasonally dry tropical forest enclaves in the Cerrado biome and its association with the Pleistocenic arc. J Biogeogr 33:1983–1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Werneck FP, Costa GC, Colli GR, Prado DE, Sites JW (2011) Revisiting the historical distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests: new insights based on palaeodistribution modelling and palynological evidence. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:272–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Werneck FP, Gamble T, Colli GR, Rodrigues MT, Sites JW (2012) Deep diversification and long-term persistence in the south American ‘Dry Diagonal’: integrating continent-wide Phylogeography and distribution modeling of geckos. Evolution 66:3014–3034. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1558-5646.2012.01682.X
  108. Werneck FP, Leite RN, Geurgas SR, Rodrigues MT (2015) Biogeographic history and cryptic diversity of saxicolous Tropiduridae lizards endemic to the semiarid Caatinga. BMC Evol Biol 15:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Willig MR, Mares MA (1989) Mammals from the Caatinga: an updated list and summary of recent research. Rev Bras Biol 49:361–367PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Oliveira Mesquita
    • 1
  • Gabriel Corrêa Costa
    • 2
  • Adrian Antonio Garda
    • 3
  • Fagner Ribeiro Delfim
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da NaturezaUniversidade Federal da ParaíbaJoão PessoaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Ecologia, Centro de BiociênciasUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratório de Anfíbios e Répteis, Departamento de Botânica e Zoologia, Centro de BiociênciasUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil

Personalised recommendations