Studying Node Cooperation in Reputation Based Packet Forwarding Within Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
In the paradigm of mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET), forwarding packets originating from other nodes requires cooperation among nodes. However, as each node may not want to waste its energy, cooperative behavior can not be guaranteed. Therefore, it is necessary to implement some mechanism to avoid selfish behavior and to promote cooperation. In this paper, we propose a simple quid pro quo based reputation system, i.e., nodes that forward gain reputation, but lose more reputation if they do not forward packets from cooperative users (determined based on reputation), and lose less reputation when they chose to not forward packets from non-cooperative users. Under this framework, we model the behavior of users as an evolutionary game and provide conditions that result in cooperative behavior by studying the evolutionary stable states of the proposed game. Numerical analysis is provided to study the resulting equilibria and to illustrate how the proposed model performs compared to traditional models.
KeywordsMobile ad hoc networks Packet forwarding Cooperation Evolutionary game theory ESS Replicator dynamics
- 2.Buttyán, L., Hubaux, J.P.: Enforcing service availability in mobile Ad-Hoc WANs. In: Proceedings of the 1st IEEE/ACM Workshop on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHOC), Boston, August 2000Google Scholar
- 4.Krzesinski, A.: Promoting cooperation in mobile ad hoc networks. Int. J. Inf. Commun. Technol. Appl. 2(1), 24–46 (2016)Google Scholar
- 7.Félegyházi, M., Hubaux, J.P.: Game theory in wireless networks: a tutorial. EPFL technical report, LCA-REPORT-2006-002, February 2006Google Scholar
- 10.Seredynski, M., Bouvry, P.: evolutionary game theoretical analysis of reputation-based packet forwarding in civilian mobile ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of Parallel and Distributed Processing, Rome, pp. 1–8 (2009)Google Scholar