A Brief History of Anti-vaccination Movements
The story of the anti-vaccination movements, which have opposed vaccinations for health, religious and political reasons, is a story that is as old as the very practice of inoculating smallpox (Moulin 1996). In this long story, however, there has not been a single case where the movements have raised fears that the scientific community has deemed as having any grounds. However, they have at times reached results both in a legal context, obtaining in some cases exemption from compulsory vaccinations, and in the context of the pharmaceutical production. In one case, they succeeded having a preservative, unjustly deemed toxic, eliminated. Similar results, as will be seen, represent an apparent victory because they have not given any effective advantage to the anti-vaccination movements and, most importantly, at times they have even decreased herd immunity by causing new outbreaks of epidemics.
- Albert, M., K.G. Ostheimer and J.G. Breman (2001), The Last Smallpox Epidemic in Boston and The Vaccination Controversy, “The New England Journal of Medicine”, p. 344.Google Scholar
- Aronson, S.M. e L. Newman (2002), God Have Mercy on This House: Being a Brief Chronicle of Smallpox in Colonial New England, in Smallpox in the Americas 1492 to 1815: Contagion and Controversy, Brown University, Exhibition at the John Carter at Brown Library, News Service, http://tinyurl.com/goyxton.
- Baker, J. (2003), The Pertussis Vaccine Controversy in Great Britain, 1974-1986, “Vaccine”, 21, pp. 4003–4011.Google Scholar
- Burioni, R. (2016), Il vaccino non è un’opinione. Milano, Mondadori.Google Scholar
- Cha A.E. (2016), 7 things about vaccines and autism that the movie ‘Vaxxed’ won’t tell you, “The Washington Post”, May 25, 2016 (https://goo.gl/WbTd4R)
- Chesworth A. (2005) Tom Cruise, Scientology Bash Psychiatry; APA Fires Back, “Skeptical Inquirer”, 2005;29.5:8–11.Google Scholar
- Escritt, T. (2017), German Kindergartens to Name Parents Who Refuse Vaccine Advice Europe is experiencing a spike in disease thanks to a drop in immunization numbers. "Scientific American", May 26, 2017 (https://goo.gl/XnpnGr).
- Haverkate, M. et al. (2012). Mandatory and Recommended Vaccination in the EU, Iceland and Norway: Results of the Venice 2010 Survey on the Ways of Implementing National Vaccination Programmes, Euro Surveill, 17(22).Google Scholar
- Kaufman M. (1967), The American Anti-Vaccinationists and Their Arguments, “Bulletin of the History of Medicine”, September-October, 41(5), pp. 463–78.Google Scholar
- Kayne, S. (2006), Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843): the founder of modern homeopathy. "Pharm Hist" (Lond). 36 (2 Suppl): pp. S23–6.Google Scholar
- Lee, B. (2016), Robert De Niro: 'I'm not anti-vaccine, I want safe vaccines', “The Guardian” 13th April 2016: https://goo.gl/R5LVa1
- Lewinjan, T. (2015), Sick Child’s Father Seeks Vaccination Requirement in California, “The New York Times” 28, 2015. (https://goo.gl/mKrASU)
- McDevitt, M., P. Parks, et al. (2017). Anti-intellectualism among US students in journalism and mass communication: A cultural perspective. "Journalism" 0(0): 1464884917710395.Google Scholar
- McGreevy P (2015) Not enough signatures: Vaccine opponents fall short in ballot effort. Los Angeles Times, 30 September. (https://goo.gl/63iv3j)
- Moulin, A.M. (1996), L’Aventure de la vaccination, Paris, Fayard.Google Scholar
- Nagourney A (2015), California mandates vaccines for schoolchildren, “The New York Times”, June 30th, 2015.Google Scholar
- Payet, M. (2017), Pourquoi ces 200 médecins disent oui aux vaccins obligatoires, “Le Parisien”, 29 June 2017 (https://goo.gl/sFyUvB)
- Rappuoli, R. and L. Vozza (2009), I vaccini dell’era globale, Bologna, Zanichelli.Google Scholar
- Sternhell, Z. (2010). The anti-enlightenment tradition. New Haven; London, Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Sun L.H. (2017), California vaccination rate hits new high after tougher immunization law, “The Washington Post”, April 13th 2017 (https://goo.gl/Nxz1Ai)
- Suro, R. (1986) Italy Acting to End the Sale of Methanol-Tainted Wine, “The New York Times” April 9th, 1986Google Scholar
- WHO (2009), Measles Vaccines: WHO Position Paper, “Weekly Epidemiological Record”, N. 35. 84, 349–60.Google Scholar