Advertisement

The Role of Ecomorphodynamic Feedbacks and Landscape Couplings in Influencing the Response of Barriers to Changing Climate

  • Laura J. Moore
  • Evan B. Goldstein
  • Orencio Durán Vinent
  • David Walters
  • Matthew Kirwan
  • Rebecca Lauzon
  • A. Brad Murray
  • Peter Ruggiero

Abstract

Because barriers are low-lying and dynamic landforms, they are especially sensitive to changing environmental conditions. The continued existence of barriers will depend on the degree to which these landforms can maintain elevation above sea level while also migrating landward. We are increasingly learning that ecomorphodynamic interactions (i.e., interactions between morphology, fluid dynamics, and/or sediment transport with biological processes) as well as couplings between barrier and back-barrier environments play a critical role in determining how barrier systems will evolve as sea level rises, storm intensity increases, and the species composition of coastal vegetation changes in the future. For example, the effectiveness of storms in building elevation and moving a barrier landward is determined, in large part, by the morphology of the coastal foredune (i.e., the seaward-most dune), which is itself a product of couplings between vegetation and sediment transport processes. The cross-shore and alongshore shape of coastal foredunes, in the presence of shoreline erosion or shoreline accretion, is influenced by the distance from the shoreline that vegetation can grow, the rates of lateral and vertical vegetation growth of dune-building vegetation, as well as the dependence of vegetation growth on dune slope. In addition, as storm frequency increases relative to the rate at which dunes can grow, dunes, and therefore local barrier elevation, may become bistable, tending to be in either a high dune/barrier or low dune/barrier state. When dunes are low, storms can effectively increase barrier elevation and move a barrier landward over time leading also to the potential for increased connectivity to back-barrier marshes, which are vulnerable to drowning as sea level rises. In this case, sand delivered to back-barrier marshes can, for a time, allow back-barrier marshes to persist under conditions in which they would otherwise disappear, thereby benefitting the entire barrier-marsh system. Here we provide a synthesis of model results—tested against observations—that demonstrate these findings, illustrating the importance of feedbacks between vegetative and sediment transport processes, and couplings between landscape units, in influencing the future evolution of barrier-marsh systems.

Keywords

Ecomorphodynamics Beach grasses Dune grasses Ammophila breviligulata Uniola paniculata Spartina patens Coastal barriers Barrier islands Backbarrier marsh Foredunes Morphodynamics Barrier migration Hummocky dunes Sea-level rise Virginia East coast 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work presented in this chapter was originally funded by the Virginia Coast Reserve Long-term Ecological Research Program (National Science Foundation DEB 123773), the Department of Energy’s Office of Science through the Coastal Center of the National Institute for Climatic Change Research at Tulane University, the Geomorphology and Land use Dynamics Program of the National Science Foundation (EAR 1324973 and EAR 1053151), and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The authors thank Andrea D’Alpaos and Jorge Lorenzo-Trueba for helpful reviews and feedback that assisted in improving this manuscript.

References

  1. Ashton AD, Lorenzo-Trueba J (2018) Morphodynamics of barrier response to sea-level rise. In: Moore LJ, Murray AB (eds) Barrier dynamics and response to changing climate. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Brenner O (2012) The complex influences of back-barrier deposition, substrate slope and underlying stratigraphy in barrier island response to sea-level rise: Insights from the Virginia Barrier Islands, Mid-Atlantic Bight, USA. Masters thesis, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VAGoogle Scholar
  3. Brenner OT, Moore LJ, Murray AB (2015) The complex influences of back-barrier deposition, substrate slope and underlying stratigraphy in barrier island response to sea level rise: Insights from the Virginia Barrier Islands, Mid-Atlantic Bight, U.S.A. Geomorphology 246(1):334–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.06.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown JK, Zinnert JC, Young DR (2017) Emergent interactions influence functional traits and success of dune building ecosystem engineers. Journal of Plant Ecol. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtx033
  5. Curray JR (1960) Sediments and history of the Holocene transgression, continental shelf, northwest Gulf of Mexico. In: Shepard FP, Phleger FB, van Andel TH (eds) Recent sediments, northwest Gulf of Mexico. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol, Tulsa, pp 221–266Google Scholar
  6. Dean RG, Dalrymple RA (1991) Water wave mechanics for engineers and scientists. World Scientific, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Groot AV, Veeneklaas RM, Bakker JP (2011) Sand in the salt marsh: contribution of high-energy conditions to salt-marsh accretion. Mar Geol 282(3–4):240–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Disraeli DJ (1984) The effect of sand deposits on the growth and morphology of Ammophila Breviligulata. J Ecol 72:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duncan WH, Duncan MB (1987) The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. Durán O, Herrmann HJ (2006) Vegetation against dune mobility. Phys Rev Lett 97(18):188001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Durán O, Silva M, Bezerra L, Herrmann H, Maia L (2008) Measurements and numerical simulations of the degree of activity and vegetation cover on parabolic dunes in northeastern Brazil. Geomorphology 102(3–4):460–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Durán O, Moore LJ (2013) Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110(43):17217–17222. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1307580110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Durán Vinent O, Moore LJ (2015a) Bistability of barrier islands induced by biophysical interactions. Nat Clim Chang 5:158–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Durán Vinent, O, Moore LJ (2015b) Coastal Dune Model, v1.0. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.16161
  15. Durán Vinent O, Moore LJ (2016) Reply to comment on bistability of barrier islands induced by biophysical interactions. Nat Clim Chang 6:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ehrenfeld JG (1990) Dynamics and processes of barrier island vegetation. Reviews in Aquatic SciencesGoogle Scholar
  17. Elko N, Brodie K, Stockdon H, Nordstrom K, Houser C, McKenna K, Moore L, Rosati J, Ruggiero P, Thuman R, Walker I (2016) Dune management challenges on developed coasts. Shore Beach 84(1):15–28Google Scholar
  18. Emanuel KA (2013) Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110(30):219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fagherazzi S, Carniello L, D’Alpaos L, Defina A (2006) Critical bifurcation of shallow microtidal landforms in tidal flats and salt marshes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103(22):8337–8341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. FitzGerald DM, Buynevich I, Argow B (2006) Model of tidal inlet and barrier island dynamics in a regime of accelerated sea-level rise. J Coast Res Spec Issue 39:789–795Google Scholar
  21. FitzGerald DM, Fenster MS, Argow BA, Buynevich IV (2008) Coastal Impacts Due to Sea-Level Rise. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 36:601–647. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.35.031306.140139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ganju NK, Defne Z, Kirwan ML et al (2017) Spatially integrative metrics reveal hidden vulnerability of microtidal salt marshes. Nat Commun 8:14156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Godfrey PJ, Godfrey MM (1976) Barrier island ecology of Cape Lookout National Seashore and vicinity, North Carolina (NPS Scientific Monograph Series No. 9). National Park Service, Cape Hatteras Natl. Seashore, NCGoogle Scholar
  24. Godfrey P (1977) Climate, plant response and development of dunes on barrier beaches along the US East Coast. Int J Biometeorol 21(3):203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Godfrey PJ, Leatherman SP, Zaremba R (1979) A geobotanical approach to classification of barrier beach systems. Academic Press:Pp:99–126Google Scholar
  26. Goff J, McFadgen B, Wells A, Hicks M (2008) Seismic signals in coastal dune systems. Earth Sci Rev 89:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldstein EB, Moore LJ (2016) Stability and bistability in a one-dimensional model of coastal foredune height. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 121(5):964–977. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JF003783 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goldstein EB, Moore LJ, Durán Vinent O (2017) Vegetation controls on maximum coastal foredune hummockiness and annealing time. Earth Surf Dynam Discuss. https://doi.org/10.5194/esurf-2017-2
  29. Hacker SD et al (2012) Subtle differences in two non-native congeneric beach grases significantly affect their colonization, spread, and impact. Oikos 121:138–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hayden BP, Dolan R, Ross P (1980) Barrier island migration. In: Coats DR, Vitek JD (eds) Thresholds in Geomorphology. George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., London, UK, pp 363–384Google Scholar
  31. Harris AL, Zinnert JC, Young DR (2017) Differential response of barrier island dune grasses to species interactions and burial. Plant Ecol 218(5):609–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hesp PA (ed) (1984) Foredune Formation in Southeast Australia. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Hesp P (1988) Surfzone, beach, and foredune interactions on the Australian South East Coast. J Coast Res (Special issue 3):15–23Google Scholar
  34. Hesp P (1989) A review of the biological and geomorphological processes in the initiation and development of incipient foredunes. Proc R Soc Edinb 96:191–202Google Scholar
  35. Hesp PA (2004) Coastal dunes in the tropics and temperate regions: location, formation, morphology and vegetation processes. In: Coastal dunes. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 29–49Google Scholar
  36. Houser C, Hapke C, Hamilton S (2008) Controls on coastal dune morphology, shoreline erosion and barrier island response to extreme storms. Geomorphology 100(3):223–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Houser C, Wernette P, Rentschlar E, Jones H, Hammond B, Trimble S (2015) Post-storm beach and dune recovery: Implications for barrier island resilience. Geomorphology 234(1):54–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.12.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnson J, Moore LJ, Ells K, Murray B, Adams P, Jaeger J, MacKensize R (2015) Recent shifts in coastline change and shoreline stabilization linked to storm climate change. Earth Surf Process Landf 40:569–585. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3650
  39. Knutson TR et al (2010) Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nat Geosci 3(3):147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kopp RE et al (2014) Probabilistic 21st and 22nd century sea-level projections at a global network of tide-gauge sites. Earth's Future 2(8):383–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Larson M, Kubota S, Erikson K (2004) Swash-zone sediment transport and foreshore evolution: field experiments and mathematical modeling. Mar Geol 212(14):61–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lauzon R, Moore LJ, Murray AB, Walters D, Kirwan M, Fagherazzi S (in revision) Enhanced persistence of narrow marshes in the presence of wave 1 erosion for coupled marsh-barrier island systems reveals geometric 2 constraints on marsh evolution. J Geophys Res Earth SurfGoogle Scholar
  43. Leatherman SP (1979) Migration of Assateague Island, Maryland, by inlet and overwash processes. Geology 7:104–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lonard RI, Judd FW (2011) The biological flora of coastal dunes and wetlands: Panicum amarum S. Elliott and Panicum amarum S. Elliott var. amarulum (AS Hitchcock and MA Chase) P. Palmer. J Coast Res 27(2):233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lonard RI, Judd FW, Stalter R (2010) The biological flora of coastal dunes and wetlands: Spartina patens (W. Aiton) GH Muhlenberg. J Coast Res 26:935–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lonard RI, Judd FW, Stalter R (2011) Biological flora of coastal dunes and wetlands: Uniola paniculata L. J Coast Res 27(5):984–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Long JW, de Bakker ATM, Plant NG (2014) Scaling coastal dune elevation changes across storm-impact regimes. Geophys Res Lett 41:2899–2906. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL059616 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marani M et al (2011) Understanding and predicting wave erosion of marsh edges. Geophys Res Lett 38(21)Google Scholar
  49. Mariotti G, Carr J (2014) Dual role of salt marsh retreat: long-term loss and short-term resilience. Water Resour Res 50(4):2963–2974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mariotti G, Fagherazzi S (2013) Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(14):5353–5356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maun MA (1998) Adaptations of plants to burial in coastal sand dunes. Can J Bot 738:713–738Google Scholar
  52. Maun MA, Perumal J (1999) Zonation of vegetation on lacustrine coastal dunes: effects of burial by sand. Ecol Lett:14–18Google Scholar
  53. Moore LJ, List JH, Williams SJ, Stolper D (2010) Complexities in barrier island response to sea-level rise: insights from model experiments. J Geophys Res Earth Surf. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JF001299
  54. Moore LJ, McNamara DE, Murray AB, Brenner O (2013) Observed changes in hurricane-driven waves explain the dynamics of modern cuspate shorelines. Geophys Res Lett 40(22):5867–5871. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL057311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moore LJ, Patsch K, Williams SJ, List JL (2014) Barrier islands poised for geomorphic threshold crossing in response to rapid sea-level rise: insights from Numerical Model Experiments, Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA. Mar Geol 355(1):244–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2014.05.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moore LJ, Ruggiero P, Durán O (2016) Vegetation control allows autocyclic formation of multiple dunes. Geology 44(7). https://doi.org/10.1130/G37778.1
  57. Morton RA (2002) Factors controlling storm impacts on coastal barriers and beaches—apreliminary basis for near real-time forecasting. J Coast Res 18(3):486–501Google Scholar
  58. Morton RA, Sallenger AH (2003) Morphological impacts of extreme storms on sandy beaches and barriers. J Coast Res 19(3):560–573Google Scholar
  59. Odum WE, Smith TJ, Dolan R (1987) Suppression of natural disturbance: long-term ecological change of the outer banks of North Carolina. In: Turner MG (ed) Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance. Springer, New York, NY, pp 123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Orford JD, Wilson P, Wintle AG, Knight J, Braley S (2000) Holocene coastal dune initiation in Northumberland and Norfolk, eastern UK: climate and sea-level changes as possible forcing agents for dune initiation. In: Shennan I, Andrews J (eds) Holocene land-ocean interaction and environmental change around the North Sea, vol 166. Geological Society, London, pp 197–217Google Scholar
  61. Osgood DT, Santos M, Zieman J (1995) Sediment physico-chemistry associated with natural marsh development on a storm-deposited sand flat. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 120:271–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Psuty NP (1986) A Dune/Beach interaction model and dune managemetn. Thalassas 4(1):11–15Google Scholar
  63. Psuty NP (1988) Sediment budget and dune/beach interaction. J Coast Res 3(special issue):1–4Google Scholar
  64. Psuty NP (1992) Spatial variation in coastal foredune development. In: Proceedings of the 3rd european dune congress, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  65. Redfield AC (1972) The development of a New England Salt Marsh. Ecol Monogr 42(2):201–237. https://doi.org/10.2307/1942263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roelvink D, Reniers A, van Dongeren A, Van Theil deVries J, McCall R, Lescinski J (2009) Modeling storm impacts on beaches dunes and barrier islands. Coast Eng 56(11–12):1133–1152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rogers L, Moore LJ, Goldstein EB, Hein C, Lorenzo-Trueba J, Ashton A (2015) Anthropogenic controls on overwash deposition: evidence and consequences. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 120(12):2609–2624. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JF003634 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ruggiero P, Kaminsky GM, Gelfenbaum G, Voigt B (2005) Seasonal to interannual morphodynamics along a high-energy dissipative littoral cell. J Coast Res 21(3):553–578Google Scholar
  69. Ruggiero R, Kaminsky GM, Gelfenbaum G, Cohn N (2016) Morphodynamics of prograding beaches: a synthesis of seasonal- to century-scale observations of the Columbia River littoral cell. Mar Geol 376:51–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2016.03.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ruggiero P, Hacker S, Seabloom E, Zarnetske P (2018) The role of vegetation in determining dune morphology, exposure to sea level rise, and storm-induced coastal hazards: A U.S. Pacific Northwest perspective. In: Moore L, Murray B (eds) Barrier dynamics and the impact of climate change on barrier evolution. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  71. Sallenger AH Jr (2000) Storm impact scale for barrier islands. J Coast Res 16(3):890–895Google Scholar
  72. Sallenger AH, Doran KS, Howd PA (2012) Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Nat Clim Chang 2(12):884–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schwimmer RA (2001) Rates and processes of marsh shoreline erosion in Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, U.S.A. J Coast Res 17(3):672–683Google Scholar
  74. Seabloom EW, Ruggiero P, Hacker S, Mull J, Zarnetske P (2013) Invasive grasses, climate change, and flood risk in coastal ecosystems. Glob Chang Biol 19(3):824–832. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Seabloom EW, Wiedemann AM (1994) Distribution and effects of Ammophila breviligulata Fern. (American Beach Grass) on the foredunes of the Washington Coast. J Coast Res 10:178–188Google Scholar
  76. Seliskar DM, Huettel RN (1994) Nematode involvement in the dieout of Ammophila breviligulata (Poaceae) on the Mid-Atlantic coastal dunes of the United States. J Coast Res 9(1):97–103Google Scholar
  77. Seneca ED (1972) Seedling response to salinity in four dune grasses from the outer banks of North Carolina. Ecology 53(3):465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Short AD, Hesp PA (1982) Wave, beach and dune interactions in southeastern Australia. Mar Geol 48:259–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Singer R, Lucas LT, Warren TB (1973) The marasmius-blight fungus. Mycologia 65(2):468–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stallins JA (2005) Stability domains in barrier island dune systems. Ecol Complex 2:410–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stallins JA, Parker AJ (2003) The influence of complex systems interactions on barrier island dune vegetation pattern and process. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 93(1):13–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stalter R, Lamont SE (1990) The vascular flora of Assateague Island, Virginia. Bull Torrey Bot Club 117(1):48–56. https://doi.org/10.2307/2997128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stalter R, Lamont SE (2000) Vascular flora of fisherman Island, Virginia. J Torrey Bot Soc 127(4):324–332. https://doi.org/10.2307/3088651 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stockdon HF, Sallenger AH, Holman RA, Howd PA et al (2007) A simple model for the spatially-variable coastal response to hurricanes. Mar Geol 238(1–4):1–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2006.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stocker TF et al (2013) IPCC, 2013: climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.KGoogle Scholar
  86. Stolper D, List JH, Thieler ER (2005) Simulating the evolution of coastal morphology and stratigraphy with a new morphological-behaviour model (GEOMBEST). Mar Geol 218:17–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2005.02.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Van Der Valk AG (1975) The floristic composition and structure of foredune plant communities of cape hatteras national seashore. Chesap Sci 16(2):115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Walters D, Moore LJ, Durán O, Fagherazzi S, Mariotti G (2014) Interactions between barrier Islands and back-barrier marshes affect island system response to sea level rise: insights from a coupled model. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 119:2013–2031. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JF0033091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Walters D, Kirwan M (2016) Optimal hurricane overwash thickness for maximizing marsh resilience to sea level rise. J Ecol Evol 6(9):2948–2956. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wells A, Goff J (2007) Coastal dunes in Westland, New Zealand, provide a record of paleoseismic activity on the Alpine fault. Geol Soc Am 35(8):731–734. https://doi.org/10.1130/G23554A.1 Google Scholar
  91. Wolner CV, Moore LJ, Young DR, Brantley ST, Bissett SN, McBride RA (2013) Ecomorphodynamic feedbacks and barrier island response to disturbance: Insights from the Virginia Barrier Islands, Mid-Atlantic Bight, USA. Geomorphology 199:115–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.03.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Woodhouse WW, Seneca ED, Broome SW (1977) Effect of species on dune grass growth. Int J Biometeorol 21(3):256–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Young IR, Verhagen LA (1996) The growth of fetch limited waves in water of finite depth. Part 1. Total energy and peak frequency. Coast Eng 29:47–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zarnetske PL et al (2012) Biophysical feedback mediates effects of invasive grasses on coastal dune shape. Ecology 93(6):1439–1450. https://doi.org/10.1890/11-1112.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zarnetske PL, Gouhier TC, Hacker SD, Seabloom EW, Bokil VA (2013) Indirect effects and facilitation among native and non-native species promote invasion success along an environmental stress gradient. J Ecol 101(4):905–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zarnetske PL, Ruggiero P, Seabloom EW, Hacker SD (2015) Coastal foredune evolution: the relative influence of vegetation and sand supply in the US Pacific Northwest. J R Soc Interface 12(106):20150017. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zinnert JC, Shiflett SA, Vick JK, Young DR (2011) Woody vegetative cover dynamics in response to recent climate change on an Atlantic Coast barrier island using Landsat TM imagery. Geocarto Int 26:595–612. https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2011.621031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura J. Moore
    • 1
  • Evan B. Goldstein
    • 1
  • Orencio Durán Vinent
    • 2
  • David Walters
    • 2
  • Matthew Kirwan
    • 2
  • Rebecca Lauzon
    • 3
  • A. Brad Murray
    • 3
  • Peter Ruggiero
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical SciencesVirginia Institute of Marine SciencesGloucester PointUSA
  3. 3.Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the EnvironmentDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  4. 4.College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric SciencesOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations