User-Space Network Tunneling Under a Mobile Platform: A Case Study for Android Environments

  • Dario Bruneo
  • Salvatore Distefano
  • Kostya Esmukov
  • Francesco Longo
  • Giovanni Merlino
  • Antonio Puliafito
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10517)

Abstract

The IoT ecosystem is taking the whole ICT world by storm and, in particular for currently hot topics such as Smart Cities, it is becoming one of the key enablers for innovative applications and services. When talking about end users, or even citizens, mobiles enter the picture as the ultimate personal gadget, as well as relevant outlets for most of the duties (sensing, networking, edge computing) IoT devices are typically envisioned in the first place. Smartphones, tablets and similar accessories are even more powerful in terms of hardware capabilities (and function diversity) than typical embedded systems for IoT, but it is typically the software platform (e.g., the OS and SDK) which limits choices for the sake of security and control on the user experience. Even a relatively open environment, such as Android, exhibits these limits, in stark contrast to the otherwise very powerful and feature-complete functionalities the underlying system (i.e., Linux) natively supports. In this work the authors describe a fully user-friendly and platform-compliant approach to let users break free from some of these limitations, in particular with regard to network virtualisation, for the purpose of extending an IoT-ready Smart City use case to mobiles.

Keywords

Stack4Things OpenStack Fog computing IoT Cloud Network virtualization VPN Reverse tunneling 

References

  1. 1.
    Broadcasts—Android Developers. https://developer.android.com/guide/components/broadcasts.html. Accessed 23 June 2017
  2. 2.
    linux/drivers/net/tun.c - Elixir - Free Electrons. http://elixir.free-electrons.com/linux/v4.11.5/source/drivers/net/tun.c. Accessed 23 June 2017
  3. 3.
    linux/include/uapi/linux/if_tun.h - Elixir - Free Electrons. http://elixir.free-electrons.com/linux/v4.11.5/source/include/uapi/linux/if_tun.h#L87. Accessed 23 June 2017
  4. 4.
    platform_frameworks_base/com_android_server_connectivity_Vpn.cpp at 52eb4e01a49fe2e94555c000de38bbcbbb13401b android/platform_frameworks_base - GitHub. https://github.com/android/platform_frameworks_base/blob/52eb4e01a49fe2e94555c000de38bbcbbb13401b/services/core/jni/com_android_server_connectivity_Vpn.cpp#L66. Accessed 23 June 2017
  5. 5.
    socat - multipurpose relay. http://www.dest-unreach.org/socat/. Accessed 23 June 2017
  6. 6.
    Universal TUN/TAP device driver. https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/networking/tuntap.txt. Accessed 23 June 2017
  7. 7.
    VpnService|Android Developers. https://developer.android.com/reference/android/net/VpnService.html. Accessed 23 June 2017
  8. 8.
    Bizanis, N., Kuipers, F.A.: SDN and virtualization solutions for the Internet of Things: a survey. IEEE Access 4, 5591–5606 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bruneo, D., Distefano, S., Longo, F., Merlino, G., Puliafito, A., DAmico, V., Sapienza, M., Torrisi, G.: Stack4things as a fog computing platform for smart city applications. In: 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), April 2016Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chowdhury, N.M.K., Boutaba, R.: A survey of network virtualization. Comput. Netw. 54(5), 862–876 (2010). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389128609003387 CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fischer, A., Botero, J., Till Beck, M., de Meer, H., Hesselbach, X.: Virtual network embedding: a survey. Commun. Surv. Tutor. IEEE 15(4), 1888–1906 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ganti, R.K., Ye, F., Lei, H.: Mobile crowdsensing: current state and future challenges. IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(11), 32–39 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guo, B., Zhang, D., Wang, Z., Yu, Z., Zhou, X.: Opportunistic IoT: exploring the harmonious interaction between human and the Internet of Things. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 36(6), 1531–1539 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ishaq, I., Hoebeke, J., Moerman, I., Demeester, P.: Internet of Things virtual networks: bringing network virtualization to resource-constrained devices. In: 2012 IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications, pp. 293–300, November 2012Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Longo, F., Bruneo, D., Distefano, S., Merlino, G., Puliafito, A.: Stack4things: a sensing-and-actuation-as-a-service framework for IoT and cloud integration. Annales des Telecommun./Ann. Telecommun., pp. 1–18 (2016). https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84976292948&partnerID=40&md5=4f9e9d4a88b9d4e6b020331c7f92689c, cited by 0, Article in Press
  16. 16.
    Merlino, G., Bruneo, D., Longo, F., Distefano, S., Puliafito, A.: Cloud-based network virtualization: an IoT use case. In: Mitton, N., Kantarci, M.E., Gallais, A., Papavassiliou, S. (eds.) ADHOCNETS 2015. LNICSSITE, vol. 155, pp. 199–210. Springer, Cham (2015). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-25067-0_16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shi, W., Cao, J., Zhang, Q., Li, Y., Xu, L.: Edge computing: vision and challenges. IEEE Internet Things J. 3(5), 637–646 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tirumala, A., Qin, F., Dugan, J., Ferguson, J., Gibbs, K.: iPerf: the TCP/UDP bandwidth measurement tool. http://software.es.net/iperf/ (2005)
  19. 19.
    Zhao, D., Ma, H., Tang, S., Li, X.Y.: COUPON: a cooperative framework for building sensing maps in mobile opportunistic networks. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 26(2), 392–402 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dario Bruneo
    • 1
  • Salvatore Distefano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kostya Esmukov
    • 2
  • Francesco Longo
    • 1
  • Giovanni Merlino
    • 1
  • Antonio Puliafito
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di IngegneriaUniversità degli Studi di MessinaMessinaItaly
  2. 2.Social and Urban Computing GroupKazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia

Personalised recommendations