The Relevance of a Common European Identity Among the Citizens of Europe

  • Stephanie Bergbauer


The introductory chapter explains the relevance of a common European identity among Europeans for the democratic legitimacy of the EU. It introduces the concept of individual identification with Europe as the core research concept of the book and gives an overview of the research strategy guiding the analysis. It introduces the research questions at the core of the book, outlines the theoretical model for explaining individual identification with Europe and presents the research design, data, and methods of the empirical analysis.


  1. Beaudonnet, L., & Di Mauro, D. (2012). Support for Europe: Assessing the complexity of individual attitudes. European Integration online Papers, 12(2), 241–266.Google Scholar
  2. Beetham, D., & Lord, C. (1998). Legitimacy and the EU (Political dynamics of the EU). London/New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  3. Bellucci, P., Sanders, D., & Serricchio, F. (2012). Explaining European identity. In D. Sanders, P. Bellucci, G. Tóka, & M. Torcal (Eds.), The Europeanization of national polities? Citizenship and support in a post-enlargement union (pp. 61–90). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloomberg News. (2011). French People Oppose Second Greek Bailout, Ifop Poll Shows.Google Scholar
  5. Boomgaarden, H. G., Schuck, A. R. T., Elenbaas, M., & de Vreese, C. H. (2011). Mapping EU attitudes: Conceptual and empirical dimensions of Euroscepticism and EU support. European Union Politics, 12(2), 241–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cederman, L.-E. (2001). Nationalism and bounded integration: What it would take to construct a European demos. European Journal of International Relations, 7(2), 139–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cerutti, F. (2001). Towards the political identity of the Europeans. An introduction. In F. Cerutti & E. Rudolph (Eds.), A soul for Europe (pp. 1–31). Leuven/Sterling: Peeters.Google Scholar
  8. Cerutti, F. (2003). A political identity of the Europeans? Thesis Eleven, 72(1), 26–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Citrin, J., & Sides, J. (2004a). Can Europe exist without Europeans? Problems of identity in a multinational community. In M. G. Hermann (Ed.), Advances in political psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 41–70). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  10. Citrin, J., & Sides, J. (2004b). More than nationals: How identity choice matters in the New Europe. In R. K. Herrmann, T. Risse, & M. B. Brewer (Eds.), Transnational identities. Becoming European in the EU (pp. 161–185). Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham.Google Scholar
  11. Commission of the European Communities. (1982). Euro-barometre N.17 June 1982. Public Opinion in the European Community in Spring 1982. (Vol. 17). Brussels.Google Scholar
  12. Copsey, N. (2015). Rethinking the European Union. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Decker, F. (2002). Governance beyond the nation-state. Reflections on the democratic deficit of the European Union. Journal of European Public Policy, 9(2), 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Delhey, J. (2007). Do enlargements make the European Union less cohesive? An analysis of trust between EU nationalities. Journal of Common Market Studies, 45(2), 253–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deutsch, K. W. (1953a). Nationalism and social communication: An inquiry into the foundations of nationality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  16. Deutsch, K. W. (1953b). Political community at the international level: Problems of definition and measurement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Deutsch, K. W., Burrell, S. A., & Kann, R. A. (1957). Political community and the North Atlantic area: International organization in the light of historical experience. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Deutscher Bundestag. (2010). Plenarprotokoll 17/42: Stenografischer Bericht, 42. Sitzung. Berlin, Mittwoch, den 19. Mai 2010. Berlin.Google Scholar
  19. European Commission. (1974). Seventh general report on the activities of the European Communities 1973. Brussels/Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  20. European Commission. (2013). Standard Eurobarometer 80. Autumn 2013. Public Opinion in the European Union. First Results. In D.-G. f. Communication (Ed.), (Vol. 80). Brussels.Google Scholar
  21. Forschungsgruppe Wahlen. (2010a). Politbarometer Dezember II 2010: Mehrheit gegen stärkere Finanzhilfen für verschuldete EU-Staaten. Politbarometer.Google Scholar
  22. Forschungsgruppe Wahlen. (2010b). Politbarometer März II 2010: Zwei Drittel der Bürger gegen deutsche Kredite für Griechenland. Politbarometer.Google Scholar
  23. Forschungsgruppe Wahlen. (2011a). Politbarometer Juni 2011: Mehrheit gegen weitere Finanzhilfen für Griechenland. Politbarometer.Google Scholar
  24. Forschungsgruppe Wahlen. (2011b). Politbarometer Oktober I 2011: Mehrheit gegen Schuldenschnitt für Griechenland. Politbarometer.Google Scholar
  25. Forschungsgruppe Wahlen. (2011c). Politbarometer September I 2011: Deutliche Mehrheit gegen Erweiterung des Euro-Rettungsschirms. Politbarometer.Google Scholar
  26. Forschungsgruppe Wahlen. (2012a). Politbarometer August 2012: Griechenland: Zwei Drittel gegen mehr Zeit. Politbarometer.Google Scholar
  27. Forschungsgruppe Wahlen. (2012b). Politbarometer Januar II 2012: Mehrheit gegen Aufstockung des Euro-Rettungsschirms. Politbarometer.Google Scholar
  28. Fuchs, D. (2011). Cultural diversity, European identity and legitimacy of the EU: A theoretical framework. In D. Fuchs & H.-D. Klingemann (Eds.), Cultural diversity, european identity and the legitimacy of the EU (pp. 27–57). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fuchs, D., & Klingemann, H.-D. (2002). Eastward enlargement of the European Union and the identity of Europe. West European Politics, 25(2), 19–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fuchs, D., & Schneider, C. (2011). Support of the EU and European identity: Some descriptive results. In D. Fuchs & H.-D. Klingemann (Eds.), Cultural diversity, European identity and the legitimacy of the EU (pp. 61–85). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fuchs, D., Guinaudeau, I., & Schubert, S. (2009). National identity, European identity, and Euroscepticism. In D. Fuchs, R. Magni-Berton, & A. Roger (Eds.), Euroscepticism. Images of Europea among mass publics and political elites (pp. 91–112). Opladen/Farmington Hills: Barbara Budrich Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Gerhards, J. (2005). Kulturelle Unterschiede in der Europäischen Union: Ein Vergleich zwischen Mitgliedsländern, Beitrittskandidaten und der Türkei. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  33. Haas, E. B. (1958). The uniting of Europe: Political, social, and economic forces 1950–57. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Habermas, J. (2001). Zeit der Übergänge. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  35. Habermas, J. (2004). Der gespaltene Westen. Suhrkamp: Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar
  36. Hutter, S., & Grande, E. (2014). Politicizing Europe in the national electoral arena: A comparative analysis of five West European countries, 1970–2010. Journal of Common Market Studies, 52(5), 1002–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Illing, F. (2013). Die Euro-Krise. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaina, V. (2009). Wir in Europa: kollektive Identität und Demokratie in der Europäischen Union. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kielmansegg, P. G. (2003). Integration und Demokratie (mit Nachwort zur 2.Auflage). In M. Jachtenfuchs & B. Kohler-Koch (Eds.), Europäische integration (2nd ed., pp. 49–83). Opladen: Leske+Budrich.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kuhn, T. (2015). Experiencing European integration: individual transnationalism and public orientations towards European integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lane, P. R. (2012). The European sovereign debt crisis. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(3), 49–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Offe, C. (1998). Demokratie und Wohlfahrtsstaat: eine europäische Regimeform unter dem Stress der europäischen Integration. Swiss Political Science Review, 4(4), 35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Offe, C. (2013). Europe entrapped. European Law Journal, 19(5), 595–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. PewResearchCenter. (2012). European Unity on the rocks. PewResearchCenter Global Attitudes & Trends.Google Scholar
  45. PewResearchCenter. (2013). The new sick man of Europe: The European Union. PewResearchCenter Global Attitudes & Trends.Google Scholar
  46. Rauh, C., & Zürn, M. (2014). Zur Politisierung der EU in der Krise. In M. Heidenreich (Ed.), Krise der europäischen Vergesellschaftung? Soziologische Perspektiven (pp. 121–145). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Risse, T. (2010). A community of Europeans? Transnational identities and public spheres. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Risse, T. (2015). European public spheres, the politicization of EU affairs, and its consequences. In T. Risse (Ed.), European public spheres: Politics is back (pp. 141–164). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Scharpf, F. W. (2009). Legitimacy in the multilevel European polity. European Political Science Review, 1(02), 173–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Scharpf, F. W. (2015). Political legitimacy in a non-optimal currency area. In O. Cramme & S. B. Hobolt (Eds.), Democratic politics in a European Union under stress (pp. 19–47). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Shambaugh, J. C. (2012). The Euro’s three crises. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring 2012, 157–231.Google Scholar
  52. Stråth, B. (2002). A European Identity. To the historical limits of a concept. European Journal of Social Theory, 5(4), 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group. A self-categorization theory. Oxford/New York: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  54. Zürn, M. (2000). Democratic governance beyond the nation-state: The EU and other international institutions. European Journal of International Relations, 6(2), 183–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie Bergbauer
    • 1
  1. 1.European Central BankFrankfurt am MainGermany

Personalised recommendations