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Basic of 3D Echocardiography; Clinical Use in Daily Practice

  • Ahmad S. Omran
Chapter

Abstract

Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) represents a major innovation and revolution in the field of cardiovascular ultrasound. Advances in computer and transducer technologies has permitted real-time 3DE acquisition and presentations of cardiac structures from any spatial point of view. 3D transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) creates a “common language” between echo cardiologist, cardiac surgeon, and cardiac interventionist in the operating room and cath lab for appropriate decision-making. In this chapter, technical background and modes of image acquisition are extensively reviewed. Introduction of xMATRIX technology has enabled utilization of more than 3000 fully sampled elements for 360º focusing and steering. With this powerful technology built in echo probes, any plane of the heart can be imaged. Further advancements in computer technology in speedy processing of the acquired data has resulted in creating images with high temporal and spatial resolutions in a single-beat acquisition format. Nowadays 3DE is becoming part of the routine echocardiography modality. Its role in diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, cardiac chamber quantification, cardiac masses, and congenital heart disease are discussed in this chapter. The emerging and unique role of 3D TEE in guiding surgical and percutaneous interventions are of importance and will be discussed as well. 3DE is a new modality and like any other new techniques has its own limitations and pitfalls. Low spatial and temporal resolutions, motion and stitch artifacts, and lack of direct 3D measurements are the major limitations. Further technical improvements will heighten its role as the first cardiac imaging modality in our daily practice.

Keywords

3D echocardiography Three-dimensional echocardiography Transesophageal echocardiography Mitral valve Artifacts in imaging 

Abbreviations

3DE

Three-dimensional echocardiography

2D

Two-dimensional

ALC

Anterolateral commissure

AoV

Aortic valve

ASE

American society of echocardiography

CHD

Congenital heart disease

CS

Coronary sinus

EACVI

European association of cardiovascular imaging

fps

Frame per second

HVR

High volume rate

IAS

Interatrial septum

IVC

Inferior vena cava

LA

Left atrium

LAA

Left atrial appendage

LAPV

Left upper pulmonary vein

LCC

Left coronary cusp

LUPV

Left upper pulmonary vein

LV

Left ventricle

LVOT

Left ventricular outflow tract

MI

Myocardial infarction

MPA

Main pulmonary artery

MPR

Multiplanar reconstruction

MR

Mitral regurgitation

MS

Mitral stenosis

MV

Mitral valve

MVA

Mitral valve area

NCC

Non-coronary cusp

PISA

Proximal isovelocity surface area

PMC

Posteromedial commissure

PR

Pulmonary regurgitation

PV

Pulmonic valve

PVR

Pulmonic valve replacement

RA

Right atrium

RAA

Right atrial appendage

RCC

Right coronary cusp

RV

Right ventricle

RVOT

Right ventricular outflow tract

TAVI

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation

TEE

Transesophageal echocardiography

TR

Tricuspid regurgitation

TS

Tricuspid stenosis

TTE

Transthoracic echocardiography

TV

Tricuspid valve

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad S. Omran
    • 1
  1. 1.King Abdulaziz Cardiac CenterMinistry of National Guard Health AffairsRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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