Advertisement

Echocardiography in Systemic Diseases

  • Azin Alizadehasl
  • Anita Sadeghpour
Chapter

Abstract

Cardiovascular disorders are a vital manifestation of systemic diseases and lead to substantial mortality and morbidity. Echocardiography has emerged as a useful noninvasive modality for the screening and evaluation of cardiac involvement in these cases. The technological developments in echocardiographic techniques and their concomitant advances in the recognition of subclinical diseases have ushered in a greater appreciation of the nature and prevalence of cardiac involvement in this group of patients. The present review explains cardiac involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, Takayasu arteritis, and ankylosing spondylitis and introduces the role of different echocardiographic modalities in their evaluation.

Keywords

Systemic diseases Echocardiography Systemic lupus erythematosus Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome Takayasu arteritis Ankylosing spondylitis 

Abbreviations

APS

Antiphospholipid syndrome

AV

Aortic valve

CAD

Coronary artery disease

MR

Mitral regurgitation

MV

Mitral valve

PH

Pulmonary hypertension

RA

Rheumatoid arteritis

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

TA

Takayasu arteritis

TEE

Transesophageal echocardiography

TTE

Transthoracic echocardiography

Supplementary material

Movie 40.1

LV long axis view showing thickened MV leaflets (AVI 14922 kb)

Movie 40.2

LV long axis view showing thickened MV leaflets associated with moderate AR and moderate MR (AVI 7325 kb)

Movie 40.3

Short axis view (at the mitral valve level) showing thickening at the tips of the MV leaflets in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (AVI 12285 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Cauduro KGM, Tsang TSM, et al. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of hemodynamically significant pericardial effusions in cases with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Cardiol. 2003;92(11):1370–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lang RM, Goldstein SA, Kronzon I, et al. ASE’s comprehensive echocardiography. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2015. Chapters 175 and 176.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yu H, Li Y-N. Echocardiographic abnormalities in a cohort of Chinese cases with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Ultrasound. 2011;39(9):519–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pieretti J, Roman MJ, Devereux RB, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus predicts increased left ventricular mass. Circulation. 2007;116(4):419–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zawadowski M, Klarich KW, Moder KG, et al. A contemporary case series of lupus myocarditis. Lupus. 2012;21(13):1378–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gleason CB, Stoddard MF, Wagner SG, et al. A comparison of cardiac valvular involvement in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome versus anticardiolipin-negative systemic lupus erythematosus. Am Heart J. 1993;125(4):1123–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zuily V, Regnault C, Selton-Suty C, et al. Increased risk for heart valve disease related with antiphospholipid antibodies in cases with systemic lupus erythematosus: meta-analysis of echocardiographic studies. Circulation. 2011;124(2):215–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lambova S. Cardiac manifestations in systemic sclerosis. World J Cardiol. 2014;6(9):993–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Soto ME, Espinola-Zavaleta N, Ramirez-Quito O, Reyes PA. Echocardiographic follow-up of patients with Takayasu’s arteritis: five-year survival. Echocardiography. 2006;23(5):353–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO. Braunwald’s heart disease a textbook of cardiovascular medicine (Chapter 14). 10th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2015.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hashimoto Y, Oniki T, Aerbajinai W, Numano F. Aortic regurgitation in patients with Takayasu arteritis: assessment by color Doppler echocardiography. Heart Vessels Suppl. 1992;7:111–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C G, Bianchi-Fior P, Cormier B, Barthelemy B, Rat AC, Boissier MC. Cardiac manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control transesophageal echocardiography study in 30 patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;45(2):129–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    O’Neill TW, King G, Graham IM, Molony J, Bresnihan B. Echocardiographic abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1992;51(5):652–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azin Alizadehasl
    • 1
  • Anita Sadeghpour
    • 2
  1. 1.Echocardiography and Cardiogenetic Research CentersCardio-Oncology Department, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran
  2. 2.Echocardiography Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterIran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran

Personalised recommendations