Sedation for Transesophageal Echocardiography

  • Rasoul Azarfarin
  • Ramin Rohanifar


Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a minimal invasive diagnostic tool performed for a growing number of patients in echocardiography departments and intensive care units. Such as other semi-invasive procedures, TEE requires some degrees of sedation to achieve better patient safety and comfort and operator convenience. Given the potential minor and rarely major cardio-respiratory complications of TEE, it is essential that a highly skilled person conduct the sedation. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement, ECG, and pulse oximetry are essential monitoring tools, but they cannot replace the clinical examination and observation of the patient thorough the TEE procedure. In this chapter, we offer anesthesiologists and non-anesthesiologist providers practical notes regarding sedation during TEE to guarantee best patient safety.


Moderate sedation Transesophageal echocardiography Benzodiazepines Opioid analgesics Complications 



American society of anesthesiologists


Bispectral index


Transesophageal echocardiography


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rasoul Azarfarin
    • 1
  • Ramin Rohanifar
    • 2
  1. 1.Echocardiography Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and Research CenterIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Anesthesiologist, Pain Medicine FellowTehran Clinic HospitalTehranIran

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