Echocardiography in Patients with Ventricular Assist Devices

  • Anita Sadeghpour
  • Azin Alizadehasl


Cardiac assist devices and mechanical circulatory supports (MCSs) play an important role in the management of end-stage heart disease.

MCSs are mechanical pumps to support or replace the ventricular heart function.

In patients who are candidate for MCSs implantation: echocardiography is the first-line imaging modality for patient selection, pre implantation, during implantation and after implantation to optimize the device settings. In this chapter, we will review role of echocardiography in patients who are candidate for ventricular assist devices (VADs) implantation.


Echocardiography Ventricular assist devices Biventricular assist devices Right ventricular assist devices Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) Inflow-cannula abnormality Pump malfunction Pump arrest 



American society of echocardiography


Aortic valve


Color flow imaging


Food and drug administration


Left ventricular assist device


Left ventricular assist devices


Left ventricular ejection fraction


Left ventricular internal diameter


Mechanical circulatory supports


Mitral regurgitation


Mitral valve


Patent foramen ovales


Right ventricular


Transesophageal echocardiography


Transthoracic echocardiography


Ventricular assist devices


  1. 1.
    Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P. Braunwald’s heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Otto CM. The practice of clinical echocardiography. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2017.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stainback RF, Estep JD, Agler DA, Birks EJ, Bremer M, Hung J, et al. Echocardiography in the management of patients with left ventricular assist devices: recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2015;28(8):853–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lang RM, Badano LP, Mor-Avi V, Afilalo J, Armstrong A, Ernande L, et al. Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2015;28(1):1–39. e14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Porter TR, Abdelmoneim S, Belcik JT, McCulloch ML, Mulvagh SL, Olson JJ, et al. Guidelines for the cardiac sonographer in the performance of contrast echocardiography: a focused update from the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2014;27(8):797–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Topilsky Y, JK O, Shah DK, Boilson BA, Schirger JA, Kushwaha SS, et al. Echocardiographic predictors of adverse outcomes after continuous left ventricular assist device implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol Img. 2011;4(3):211–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fitzpatrick JR, Frederick JR, Hiesinger W, Hsu VM, McCormick RC, Kozin ED, et al. Early planned institution of biventricular mechanical circulatory support results in improved outcomes compared with delayed conversion of a left ventricular assist device to a biventricular assist device. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;137(4):971–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feldman D, Pamboukian SV, Teuteberg JJ, Birks E, Lietz K, Moore SA, et al. The 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Guidelines for mechanical circulatory support: executive summary. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32(2):157–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ammar KA, Umland MM, Kramer C, Sulemanjee N, Jan MF, Khandheria BK, et al. The ABCs of left ventricular assist device echocardiography: a systematic approach. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;13(11):885–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raina A, Vaidya A, Gertz ZM, Chambers S, Forfia PR. Marked changes in right ventricular contractile pattern after cardiothoracic surgery: implications for post-surgical assessment of right ventricular function. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32(8):777–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Sadeghpour
    • 1
  • Azin Alizadehasl
    • 2
  1. 1.Professor of CardiologyEchocardiography Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Associate Professor of Cardiology, Echocardiologist, Echocardiography and Cardiogenetic Research CentersCardio-Oncology Department, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran

Personalised recommendations