Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has a key role in evaluation of mitral valve lesions, the left atrium or its appendage, atrial septal defects, intracardiac masses, endocarditis and its complications, and thoracic aortic lesions such as aortic dissection. Patients with atrial fibrillation undergo direct-current cardioversion without chronic anticoagulation if TEE does not show intracardiac thrombi. With ablation procedures, atrial fibrillation has become one of the most common reasons for TEE referrals. The crucial role of TEE in the operating room and the cath lab for the assessment of the result of various valvular repair, and interventional procedures has been proved.
In this chapter, we will review the indications and contraindications of TEE as well as its standard views and necessary preparations.
KeywordsTransthoracic echocardiography Standard windows Echocardiographic views Valvular heart disease Interventional TEE Intraoperative TEE
Inferior vena cava
Left atrial appendage
Left lower pulmonary vein
Left upper pulmonary vein
Left ventrivular outflow tract
Mitral valve leaflets
Right lower pulmonary vein
Right upper pulmonary vein
Right ventricular outflow tract
Superior vena cava
Tricuspid valve leaflets
- 1.Hahn RT, Abraham T, Adams MS, Bruce CJ, Glas KE, Lang RM, Reeves ST, Shanewise JS, Siu SC, Stewart W, Picard MH. Guidelines for Performing a Comprehensive Transesophageal Echocardiographic Examination: Recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. ASE GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2013;26:921–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Hahn RT, Abraham T, Adams MS, Bruce CJ, Glas KE, Lang BM, et al. Guidelines for Performing a Comprehensive Transesophageal Echocardiographic examination: Recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2013;26:921–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, et al. ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 appropriate use criteria for echocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance American College of Chest Physicians. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2011;24:229–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Intersocietal Accrediation Commission. IAC standards for adult echocardiography accreditation. http://www.intersocietal.org/echo/standards/IACAdultEchocardiographyStandards2012.pdf. Accessed 27 Jul 2013.