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Echocardiography in Prosthetic Heart Valves

  • Anita Sadeghpour
  • Azin Alizadehasl
Chapter

Abstract

Echocardiography is the key noninvasive modality for evaluation of prosthetic valve structure and function. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the mainstay for monitoring prosthetic valves and can generally identify normal function as well as evidence of valve dysfunction. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is helpful particularly for assessment of valve structure, malfunction and prosthetic valve regurgitation and dehiscence as well as assessment of endocarditis for all valves. This chapter will review the role of echocardiography in study of prosthetic heart valves in detail.

Keywords

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) Prosthetic heart valves Mechanical prostheses Bioprosthesis Prosthesis-patient mismatch Prosthetic valve regurgitation Prosthetic valve thrombosis 

Abbreviations

ACC

American college of cardiology

AHA

American heart association

AV

Aortic valve

DVI

Doppler velocity index

EOA

Effective orifice area

HU

Hunsfiel unit

IE

Infective endocarditis

LVOT

Left ventricular outflow tract

MDCT

Multi detector CT

MV

Mitral valve

PHT

Pressure half time

PHV

Prosthetic heart valve

PPM

Prosthesis–patient mismatch

PVT

Prosthetic valve thrombosis

TEE

Transesophageal echocardiography

TTE

Transthoracic echocardiography

VTI

Velocity time integral

Supplementary material

Movie 18.1

(related to Fig. 18.1): Caged-ball (Starr-Edwards) mechanical mitral prosthesis in TTE 4 chamber view and normal motion (AVI 6441 kb)

Movie 18.2

(related to Fig. 18.2): Left: Mono-leaflet mitral prostheses in TEE four chamber view showing normal disc excursion. Normally the opening angle of the disk relative to the prosthetic annulus ranges between 60° and 80° and resulting in two small and larger orifices (AVI 13036 kb)

Movie 18.3

(related to Fig. 18.8): Malfunctioning Mono-leaflet mitral prostheses with reduced disc excursion in 2D TEE (MP4 1039 kb)

Movie 18.4

(related to Fig. 18.13): Bileaflet mitral prostheses malfunction, Fixed medial leaflet in 2D TEE, fixed medial leaflet by color study and also Fixed medial leaflet in 3D TEE (AVI 6446 kb)

Movie 18.5

Bileaflet mitral prostheses malfunction, Fixed medial leaflet in 2D TEE, fixed medial leaflet by color study and also Fixed medial leaflet in 3D TEE (AVI 1264 kb)

Movie 18.6

Bileaflet mitral prostheses malfunction, Fixed medial leaflet in 2D TEE, fixed medial leaflet by color study and also Fixed medial leaflet in 3D TEE (AVI 1020 kb)

Movie 18.7

(related to Fig. 18.15): Intermittent obstruction of Mono-leaflet mitral prostheses in TEE four chamber view with and without color study (AVI 18595 kb)

Movie 18.8

Intermittent obstruction of Mono-leaflet mitral prostheses in TEE four chamber view with and without color study (AVI 5388 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Sadeghpour
    • 1
  • Azin Alizadehasl
    • 2
  1. 1.Echocardiography Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Echocardiologist, Echocardiography and Cardiogenetic Research CentersCardio-Oncology Department, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran

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