Effects of Image-Based Rendering and Reconstruction on Game Developers Efficiency, Game Performance, and Gaming Experience

  • George E. RaptisEmail author
  • Christina Katsini
  • Christos Fidas
  • Nikolaos Avouris
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10514)


Image-based rendering and reconstruction (IBR) approaches minimize time and costs to develop video-game assets, aiming to assist small game studios and indie game developers survive in the competitive video-game industry. To further investigate the interplay of IBR on developers’ efficiency, game performance, and players’ gaming experience we conducted two evaluation studies: a comparative, ecologically valid study with professional game developers who created games with and without an IBR-based game development pipeline, and a user study, based on eye-tracking and A/B testing, with gamers who played the developed games. The analysis of the results indicates that IBR tools provide a credible solution for creating low cost video game assets in short time, sacrificing game performance though. From a player’s perspective, we note that the IBR approach influenced players’ preference and gaming experience within contexts of varying levels of player’s visual intersections related to the IBR-created game assets.


Evaluation study Video games Image-based rendering and reconstruction Game development efficiency Game performance Gaming experience 


  1. 1.
    Newzoo: Top 100 Countries by 2015 Game Revenues (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Entertainment Software Association (ESA): Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fuchs, M.: The video game industry: formation, present state, and future. 6, 83–87 (2014). doi: 10.1386/jgvw.6.1.83_5
  4. 4.
    Ackermann, J., Langguth, F., Fuhrmann, S., Goesele, M.: Photometric stereo for outdoor webcams. In: Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference Computer Vision Pattern Recognition, pp. 262–269 (2012). doi: 10.1109/CVPR.2012.6247684
  5. 5.
    Laffont, P.Y., Bousseau, A., Drettakis, G.: Rich intrinsic image decomposition of outdoor scenes from multiple views. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 19, 210–224 (2013). doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2012.112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chaurasia, G., Duchene, S., Sorkine-Hornung, O., Drettakis, G.: Depth synthesis and local warps for plausible image-based navigation. ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 1–12 (2013). doi: 10.1145/2487228.2487238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goesele, M., Ackermann, J., Fuhrmann, S., Haubold, C., Klowsky, R., Darmstadt, T.: Ambient point clouds for view interpolation. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 1 (2010). doi: 10.1145/1833351.1778832 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tompkin, J., Kim, K.I., Kautz, J., Theobalt, C.: Videoscapes: exploring sparse unstructured video collections. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 12 (2012). doi: 10.1145/2185520.2185564 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lipski, C., Linz, C., Berger, K., Sellent, A., Magnor, M.: Virtual video camera: image-based viewpoint navigation through space and time. Comput. Graph. Forum. 29, 2555–2568 (2010). doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8659.2010.01824.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ballan, L., Brostow, G.J., Puwein, J., Pollefeys, M.: Unstructured video-based rendering: interactive exploration of casually captured videos. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 11 (2010). doi: 10.1145/1778765.1778824 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levieux, P., Tompkin, J., Kautz, J.: Interactive viewpoint video textures. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding, pp. 11–17 (2012). doi: 10.1145/2414688.2414690
  12. 12.
    Starck, J., Kilner, J., Hilton, A.: Objective quality assessment in free-viewpoint video production. In: 3DTV Conference True Vision - Capture, Transmission Display 3D Video, pp. 225–228 (2008). doi: 10.1109/3DTV.2008.4547849
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Meerstone Archa eological Consultancy: 3D Modelling with AgiSoft PhotoScan -Tests to determine the suitability of AgiSoft PhotoScan for archaeological recording, pp. 1–4 (2010)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raof, A.N.A., Setan, H., Chong, A., Majid, Z.: Three dimensional modeling of archaeological artifact using photomodeler scanner. J. Teknol. 75, 143–153 (2015). doi: 10.11113/jt.v75.5283 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fidas, C., Avouris, N., Orvieto, I.: Requirements elicitation for new video game development tools: a case study, pp. 1–18 (2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Cayon, R.O., Djelouah, A., Drettakis, G.: A Bayesian approach for selective image-based rendering using superpixels. In: Proceedings of - 2015 International Conference on 3D Vision, 3DV 2015, pp. 469–477 (2015). doi: 10.1109/3DV.2015.59
  19. 19.
    Fuhrmann, S., Goesele, M.: Floating scale surface reconstruction. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1–11 (2014). doi: 10.1145/2601097.2601163 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gryka, M., Terry, M., Brostow, G.J.: Learning to remove soft shadows. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 1–15 (2015). doi: 10.1145/2732407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Langguth, F., Goesele, M.: Guided capturing of multi-view stereo datasets. In: Eurographics 2013 - Short Paper Proceedings, pp. 93–96 (2013). doi: 10.2312/conf/EG2013/short/093-096
  22. 22.
    Fuhrmann, S., Langguth, F., Moehrle, N., Waechter, M., Goesele, M.: MVE—an image-based reconstruction environment. Comput. Graph. 53, 44–53 (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.cag.2015.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jennett, C., Cox, A.L., Cairns, P., Dhoparee, S., Epps, A., Tijs, T., Walton, A.: Measuring and defining the experience of immersion in games. Int. J. Hum Comput Stud. 66, 641–661 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Denisova, A., Nordin, A.I., Cairns, P.: The convergence of player experience questionnaires. In: Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play - CHI PLAY 2016, pp. 33–37. ACM Press, New York (2016). doi: 10.1145/2967934.2968095
  25. 25.
    Nordin, A.I., Denisova, A., Cairns, P.: Too many questionnaires: measuring player experience whilst playing digital games. In: Seventh York Doctoral Symposium on Computer Science & Electronics, pp. 69–75 (2014). doi: 10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • George E. Raptis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christina Katsini
    • 1
  • Christos Fidas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nikolaos Avouris
    • 1
  1. 1.HCI Group, Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  2. 2.Department of Cultural Heritage Management and New TechnologiesUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations