The Role of Tumor Microenvironment in Cancer Immunotherapy

  • Timothy Frankel
  • Mirna Perusina Lanfranca
  • Weiping Zou
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1036)


The field of tumor immunology and immunotherapy has undergone a renaissance in the past decade do in large part to a better understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment. After suffering countless successes and setbacks in the twentieth century, immunotherapy has now come to the forefront of cancer research and is recognized as an important tool in the anti-tumor armamentarium. The goal of therapy is to aid the immune system in recognition and destruction of tumor cells by enhancing its ability to react to tumor antigens. This traditionally has been accomplished by induction of adaptive immunity through vaccination or through passive delivery of immunologic effectors as in the case of adoptive cell transfer. The recent discovery of immune “checkpoints” whose purpose is to suppress immune activity and prevent auto-immunity has created a new angle by which reactivity to tumors can be enhanced. Blockers of these checkpoints have yielded impressive clinical results and have recently been approved for use in a wide variety of malignancies. With data showing increasing rates of not only treatment response, but complete remissions, immunotherapy is poised to become an increasingly utilized therapy in the treatment of cancer.


T cell Dendritic cell B7-H1 PD-1 CTLA4 Cytokine IL-2 CAR T cell Tumor 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy Frankel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mirna Perusina Lanfranca
    • 1
    • 2
  • Weiping Zou
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Michigan School of MedicineAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Graduate Programs in Immunology and Tumor BiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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